Prelims Level
Mains Level

Context-:

  • Death toll of children rosed to 69 in Bihar due to Acute Encephalitis Syndrome.
  • UPSC questions based on Disease- Cause, Symptoms, Vaccine if any, disease carrier, Govt scheme.
  • Recent question UPSC prelims- Hepatitis, Zika virus, Dengue.

About:

  • Onset of fever and clinical neurological manifestation that includes mental confusion, disorientation, delirium, or coma.
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of AES in India
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes. Nipah virus, Zika virus are also found as causative agents for AES.

Treatment:

  • There is no antiviral treatment for patients with JE.
  • Treatment is supportive to relieve symptoms and stabilize the patient.

Vaccine on Japanese Encephalitis:

  • Indigenously developed Vaccine by India
  • The vaccine has been jointly developed by scientists of National Institute of  Virology (NIV), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Bharat Biotech Ltd.

Scope of Disease:

  • It predominantly affects population below 15 years.
  • There is seasonal and geographical variation in the causative organism.
  • JEV has its endemic zones running along the Gangetic plane including states of UP (east), Bihar, West Bengal and Assam, and parts of Tamil Nadu.
  • Government Action- Japanese Encephalitis is part of disease covered under Mission Indradhanush India’s Universal Immunization Programme (UIP).

Mains Perspective:

  • What are government measures regarding controlling spread of Encephalitis in country and what further need to be done
  • Hints:
  • Preventive Measure
  • Disease is usually controlled only after the arrival of monsoon rains.
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