Prelims Level
Mains Level

7.a. “Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless but knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful’.What do you understand by this statement?Explain your stand with illustration from the modren context.

(Civil Services Examination 2014)

The given statement by samuel johnson depicts the intrinsic relation between integriry and knowledge,both of which are essential components of governance.integrity is the integration of ideals,convictions,standards,beliefs and behaviour.a mann in integrity  is never influenced by temptations amd pressures from outside as he or she would only respond to one’s  conscience.however ,integrity of person cannot be put to use for society in the absence of knowledge.it is knowledge that ensures usefulness of a man’s integrity to society.

On the flip side, a person with sufficiaent knowledge but without integrity may lack insight and will head in wrong direction.this kind of knowledge can be used by the person for his  self-interest and will do more harm than food.

For example:

  • Osama bin laden, a knowledgeable engineer but a man without integrity.he became a terrorist and spread violence around the world.
  • Computer hackers who use to the steel money and crucial information from different accounts are also very knowledgeable but lack integrity.
  • An honest student student knowing nothing,will definitely fail in the examination.

All these examples appropriately explain the statement.

b.”Human beings should always be treated as ‘ends’ in themselves and never as merely ‘means’”.Explain the meaning and significance of this statement,giving its implications in the modern techno-economic society.

(Civil Services Examination 2014)

The philosopher  immanuel kant once said “ act so as  to treat people always as ends in themselves,never as mere means”.the idea here is that other people are valuable not merely in so far as they can serve our purposes;they are also valuable in themselves.

The signnificance  of this lies in the fact that it gives highest consideration to a human life it provides a maxiim,which can be  very useful in making ethical choices.stability and equality can be achieved in the society  by following this principle.it is very important especially in the present society,which is dominated by technological innovations and neo-liberlism.

In the present society,every human action has been commodified,every person used to  charge for his services and those who cannot work like disabled and old age people are considered useless for the society.every human life isnot equal,life of a rich is more important than the poor,poor people are being eexploitation by the rich for their personal benefits.Discrimination,margininnalistion,exploitation and as a result ineaquality is increasing at a faster pace.

If we really wnt to reserve these situations and humanity to prosper,we need to implement this phrase in’letter and sprit”in our life.

5.Public servants are likely to confront with the issues of’conflict of interest’.what do you understand by the term ‘conflict of interest’ and how does it manifest in the decision-making by public servants? It faced with the conflict of interest situation,how would you resolve it?Explain with the help of examples.

(Civil Services Examination 2015) 

Public officials are also individuals and there will be occasions,when an officer’s own private interests may come into conflict with their duty to put tht public interest frst.it may directly or indirectly compromise the performance of the public servant.these occasions are regarded as conflict of interest positions.

The way in which a public servant manifests in the decision making

  • Own’s property,the value of which may be altered by his agency’s activities.
  • Has shares in a family business that offers for a contract  with his agency.
  • Is offered a benefit in te course of carrying out his work related duties.
  • Holds secondary employment with an organisation that is applying to the agency for a related consideration.

For resolving conflict of interest,following steps can be taken.

Keeping public interest above private interest A public servant should always wor in public interst.in situations involving conflict of interest he should take a principled stand.

Making voluntary DisclosureA  public servant should  voluntarily  disclose in situatioms involving conflict of interest.it will help in taking suitable steps for avoiding the conflict.

Rescue from the situation/ caseoften done by judges to resolve conflict of interest.

File notingPublic servants should always mention the reason for taking particular  decision,in the files.This ensures greater degree of transparancy and accountability.if faced with conflict of interest situation,I would choose from the above mentioned steps,according to the demand of the case.

9. we are witnessing increasing instances of sexual violance against women in th country.Despite existing legal provisions against it,the number of such incidences is on the rise.suggest some innovativw measures to trackle this meance.

(Civil Services Examination 2014)

Sexual violance against women is any sexual act or attempt directed against a female’s sexuality using coerciom,by any person ragardless of theirrelationship to the victim,in any setting.it is a major social problem and violation of women’s human rights.Despite several measures the violence is on the increase even in those urban zones,which are relatively safer than other majority areas.

Certain measures,which can be taken are.

  • Community policing after giving appropriate training to volunteers.
  • Making women learn techniques like karate for self defence.
  • Use of social networking sites to create awareness and vigilence
  • Use of GPS technology to connect public transport system
  • Use of mobile applications like panic button.
  • Use of technology like installing CCTV camers in public places.
  • Special emphasis on vulnerable groups like adolescent girls and single woman living alone.
  • Developing a culture,where women are respected and considered equal.this can be done through value education.
  • Laws on paper give little protection,if they are not enforced effectively.strict enforcement and making police accountable is wat is required.
  • Techniques like knocking the door or pressing the doorbell of house by neighbours ,if noice of violance Is there
  • In high-income settings,school-based programmes prevent relationship violance among young people can be initiated.
  • In low-income settings,primary prevention strtagied,such as community-based initiatives that address gender inequality and communication and relationship skills can work effectively.
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