Prelims Syllabus : International Institutions – Summits, Working, Organisations Mains Syllabus : GS-II Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, Mandate.
Why in News?
- Recently, the ‘Global Report on Internal Displacement 2020’ revealed that conflict, violence and disasters led to 50.8 million internal displacements across the world at the end of 2019.
- It is published by Norwegian Refugee Council’s Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC).
- The Internal Displacement refers to the forced movement of people within the country they live in due to conflict, violence, development projects, disasters and climate change.
- All regions are affected by conflict displacement, but it is highly concentrated in a few countries. Of the global total of 45.7 million people displaced due to conflict and violence in 2019, three-quarters or 34.5 million, were in just 10 countries
- The Top Five countries with highest displacement by conflict and violence are: Syria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso and Afghanistan.
About Displacement and its Disasters
- Nearly 1,900 disasters sparked 24.9 million new displacements across 140 countries and territories in 2019.
- Out of the 24.9 million displaced due to disasters, 23.9 were weather-related, and “much of this displacement took place in form of pre-emptive Evacuations”.
Measures Taken to Prevent and Respond to Internal Displacement
- The Countries such as Niger and Somalia improved their policy frameworks on internal displacement.
- Others, including Afghanistan, Iraq and the Philippines, incorporated displacement in their development plans, in their reporting on the Sustainable Development Goals, or when updating risk management strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.
- The official monitoring of disaster displacement in the Philippines with mobile phone tracking data and social media analysis helped improve planning for shelters, reconstruction and long term urban recovery.
- Improvements in the quantity and quality of data available also enabled better reporting and analysis, which in turn informed more effective responses and risk mitigation measures.
About Internal Displacement and India:
- Nearly five million people were displaced in India in 2019
- The Cyclones Fani and Bulbul also led to huge displacements.
- The displacements were prompted by increased hazard intensity, high population and social and economic vulnerability.
- The Political and electoral violence, especially in Tripura and West Bengal, led to the displacement of more than 7,600 people.
- More than 2.6 million people suffered displacement due to the southwest monsoon. 2019 was the seventh warmest year since 1901 and the monsoon was the wettest in 25 years.
- Evacuations save lives, but many evacuees had their displacement prolonged because their homes had been damaged or destroyed.