Prelims level : Indian Polity Mains level : GS2 (Polity and Governance)
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Why in News:

  • A pre-election survey conducted by Lokniti suggests that three decisions of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi might have the ability to attain preferable voting.
  • These included the decision to accord 10% reservations to economically weaker sections, announcing the PM-KISAN scheme to transfer money to farmers and the air strikes within Pakistan following the Pulwama attack and not impact on deal of rafale and NYAY


  • 10% reservation for economically weak in general category. The Constitution (124th Amendment) Bill 2019 provides 10 per cent reservation in jobs and educational institutions to the economically weaker sections in the general category.
  • President Ram Nath Kovind on 12th January, 2019 gave his assent to this bill. The move came after the Union Government exercised its powers conferred by sub-section (2) of section 1 of the Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Act, 2019.

124th Constitution Amendment Bill:

  • It will provide 10% reservation to economically backward sections in the general category. The Bill will also cover those from the Muslim, Sikh, Christian, Buddhist and other minority communities. The quota will be over and above the existing 50% reservation to Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes (OBC). Those who have an annual salary of less than Rs. 8 lakh per year and possess less than 5 acres of land will be able to avail reservation in educational institutions and jobs.
  • The quota will be available to only those economically backward poor people not availing the benefit of reservation as of now, who have a residential house below 1,000 square feet, a residential plot below 100 square yards in a notified municipality, residential plot below 200 square yards in non-notified municipality area.

Will it benefit the poor?

  • In the Indra Sawhney judgment, the court had said: “…the concept of ‘weaker sections’ under Article 46 is different from that of the ‘backward class’ of citizens in Article 16(4), but the purpose of the two is also different.
  • One is for the limited purpose of the reservation and hence suffers from limitations, while the other is for all purposes under Article 46… While those entitled to benefits under Article 16(4) may also be entitled to availing themselves of the measures taken under Article 46, the converse is not true.
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