Prelims level : Polity and Governance Mains level : Aspects of Governance
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Why in news:

  • Ex-Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir has been moved to Khartoum’s grim high-security Kobar prison from the presidential residence and transitional military rulers announced steps to crack down on corruption.


  • Sudan’s long-time president Omar al-Bashir has been removed from office and arrested following months of protests Bashir’s regime.

How the coup happened?

  • Protests started against al-Bashir on December 19, 2018 when government stopped subsidies on wheat and fuel.
  • People started protests government and its policies. In next few weeks situation turned violent and engulfed the capital Khartoum and major metropolitan areas like Omdurman. Government took a strong action against protesters by cracking down on protestors, shutting the internet and social media outlets, cutting electricity and water services, and dispersing protestors using tear gas. Officials have said 49 people have died in protest- related violence.
  • In February, al-Bashir acknowledged the demands of protestors and delayed constitutional amendments that would have allowed him to run for the presidency again next year.
  • He also declared a yearlong state of emergency and dissolved both central and state governments.
  • All these actions by al-Bashir provoked the protests across country; Sudanese women, musicians, artists, and the country’s global diaspora all played a crucial role in calling for al-Bashir to step down.

Omar al-Bashir’s controversial regime

  • On 30 June 1989, Colonel Omar al-Bashir led a bloodless military coup. The new military government suspended political parties and introduced an Islamic legal code on the national level.
  • On 16 October 1993, al-Bashir appointed himself President and disbanded the Revolutionary Command Council. The executive and legislative powers of the council were taken by al-Bashir.
  • In the 1996 general election he was the only candidate by law to run for election. Sudan became a one-party state under the National Congress Party (NCP).
  • The United States subsequently listed Sudan as a state sponsor of terrorism. The US bombed Sudan in 1998, targeting a pharmaceutical factory.
  • On 9 January 2005, the government signed the Nairobi Comprehensive Peace Agreement with the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) with the objective of ending the Second Sudanese Civil War.
  • The United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) was established under the UN Security Council Resolution 1590 to support its implementation
  • The protests continued up until the overthrow of his government on April 11, 2019, when President al-Bashir was arrested and a three months state of emergency was enacted
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