04, Jun 2019
Prelims level : Pollution Mains level : Environment Conservation
Why in News: / BS Emission Norms:
- The BS or Bharat Stage emission standards are norms instituted by the government to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
- India has been following the European (Euro) emission norms, though with a time lag of five years. BS-IV norms are currently applicable in 33 cities in which the required grade of fuel is available; the rest of India still conforms to BS-III standards.
- India introduced emission norms first in 1991, and tightened them in 1996, when most vehicle manufacturers had to incorporate technology upgrades like catalytic converters to cut exhaust emissions.
- Fuel specifications based on environmental considerations were notified first in April 1996 to be implemented by 2000, and incorporated in BIS 2000 standards. Following the landmark Supreme Court order of April 1999, the Centre notified Bharat Stage-I (BIS 2000) and Bharat Stage-II norms, broadly equivalent to Euro I and Euro II respectively.
- BS-II was for the NCR and other metros; BS-I for the rest of India.
- From April 2005, in line with the Auto Fuel Policy of 2003, BS-III and BS-II fuel quality norms came into existence for 13 major cities, and for the rest of the country respectively.
- BS-IV and BS-III fuel quality norms were introduced from April 2010 in 13 major cities and the rest of India respectively. The fuel standards are decided in India by Environment Ministry and their implementation is managed by Central Pollution Control Board.
- According to international standards, PM 2.5 should not exceed 60 microgram/m3 in air.
But, Delhi’s PM 2.5 levels are 10 times higher.
- Burning of any fossil fuel creates pollution. So, either the vehicles should be changed to other types like electric vehicles or else, the fuel which is being burnt shall be made cleaner.
- Increasing air pollution causes diseases like Asthma, Bronchitis, heart disease, etc. NOx when mixed Hydrocarbons in the atmosphere make the air poisonous.
- Earlier Lead, being a slippery metal, was added for lubrication requirements in engines. But, in 1990s it was removed and refineries added certain additives in its place as use of lead was not safe.
- Sulphur will be down from current BS IV level. BS VI = 10 ppm Sulphur and BS IV= 50 ppm Sulphur (ppm = parts per million)
- Particulate matter (sum of all solid and liquid particles suspended in air) will be reduced from 0.005 g/km as against 0.025 g/km of BS IV standard.
- Emission of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) will be 70% less.
- Bharat Stage Emission Standards (BSES) are emission standards instituted by Government of India. They regulate the output of pollutants from Internal combustion engines and spark-ignition engines, including motor vehicles.
International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT)
- The International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT) is a division of NATRiP implementation society (NATIS), under the administrative control of the Ministry of Heavy Industries & Public Enterprises, Government of India.
- ICAT is the first of new world-class centers established under the National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP) with the main objective of carrying out Research & Development besides extending homologation facilities in the field of Automotive Engineering.
- ICAT is one of the prime testing agencies recognized by the Government of India as one of the accredited ‘Type Approval and Homologation’ agencies in India under Central Motor Vehicle Rules (CMVR).
- It has also been recognized as Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (SIRO) by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), since Feb 2010, by BIS for Tyre Testing, Safety Glasses and by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for emission and noise testing of generator sets.