Category: Internal Security


Why in News?

  • • India to hold it’s first-ever simulated space warfare exercise in the last week of July, 2019. It has been named – IndSpaceEx.
  • • This exercise will basically be a ‘table-top war-game’, with all stakeholders from the
    military and scientific community taking part in it.
  • • All military stakeholders, including those from the scientific community, will participate in it.


  • • Main objective of the exercise is to understand the possible challenges in space warfare and to counter China’s growing influence in this domain, which poses a major threat to India’s national security interest.


  • • India took the first step towards developing a credible counter-space capability under ‘Mission Shakti’ when it launched a 19-tonne interceptor missile to destroy the 740-kg Microsat-R satellite, at an altitude of 283 km in a ‘hit-to-kill mode’ on 27th March, 2019.
  • • The purpose of the exercise is to understand the possible challenges in space warfare and to counter China’s growing influence in this domain, which poses a major threat to India’s national security interest.
  • • When India tested A-Sat, China started developing military capabilities in space in terms of both kinetic and non-kinetic (lasers, electromagnetic pulse) weapons.
  • • IndSpaceEx underlines the seriousness with which India is taking the need to counter likely threats to its space assets from countries like China.


  • • India took the first step towards developing a credible counter-space capability under ‘Mission Shakti’ when it launched a 19-tonne interceptor missile to destroy the 740-kg Microsat-R satellite, at an altitude of 283 km in a ‘hit-to-kill mode’ on 27th March, 2019.
  • • Since then, a new Defence Space Agency has begun to take shape, by amalgamating the Defence Imagery Processing and Analysis Centre (Delhi) and the Defence Satellite Control Centre (Bhopal), with a two-star IAF general to be soon appointed to head it. The agency is expected to eventually grow into a full-fledged Space Command in the years ahead.

Mission Shakti:

  • • Mission Shakti is India’s anti-satellite (A-SAT) weapon programme led by DRDO and ISRO. The entire operation of Mission Shakti took just three minutes.
  • • The US, Russia, and China already have the A-SAT technology. And India becomes fourth country with this technology. Mission Shakti was carried out from DRDO’s testing range in Odisha’s Balasore.
  • • India is only 4th country who acquired such a specialised and modern capability, and Entire effort is indigenous. Till now, only the US, Russia and China had the capability to hit a live target in space.
  • • The test was done to verify that India has the capability to safeguard our space assets. It is
    the Government of India’s responsibility to defend the country’s interests in outer space.


Why in News?

  • Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) successfully test fired indigenously designed & developed Long Range Sub-Sonic Cruise Missile “Nirbhay” from the Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur


  • It is the sixth development flight trial with the objective to prove the repeatability of boost phase, cruise phase using waypoint navigation at very low
  • The missile took off vertically turning horizontally into the desired direction, booster separated, the wing deployed, the engine started, cruised all the intended waypoints. The missile demonstrated its sea-skimming capability to cruise at very low
  • The entire flight was fully tracked by a chain of Electro-Optical Tracking Systems, Radars and Ground Telemetry Systems deployed all along the sea
  • All the mission objectives were


GS 3: Internal Security

Why in News?

  • The 12th edition of joint military exercise between India and Singapore culminated on 11 April 2019 after an impressive closing ceremony held at Babina Military Station (UP).
  • The Exercise is aimed at attaining a high level of interoperability between the armies of both the nations through mutual understanding and familiarization with each other’s operational procedures and equipment.
  • The troops learnt about each other’s organisations and best practices being followed in combat.
  • The exercise was a grand success and taught valuable lessons to troops of both the participating nation.


Why in News?

  • The Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) handed over the first batch of six Dhanush artillery guns to the


  • Dhanush is the indigenously upgraded gun of the Swedish Bofors gun procured in the 1980s. Dhanush is a 155 mm, 45-calibre towed artillery gun with a range of 36 km and has demonstrated a range of 38 km with specialised
  • It is an upgrade of the existing 155m, 39 calibre Bofors FH 77
  • In army parlance, it is classified as ‘medium artillery’.
  • It is compatible with all North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) 155 mm ammunition system. The gun is fitted with inertial navigation system with global positioning system- (GPS) based gun recording and auto-laying, an enhanced tactical computer for onboard ballistic computations, an onboard muzzle velocity recording, an automated gun sighting system equipped with camera, thermal imaging and laser range
  • Indigenisation to the extent of about 81%, has already been By the end of 2019,the indigenisation level of the gun will go up to 91%,” the Defence Ministry said in a statement. It is one of the “Make in India” marvels.


GS 3: Internal Security

Why in News?

Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone for AK-203 rifles manufacturing unit in Amethi, Uttar Pradesh.


  • On the occasion of laying the foundation stone, PM Modi thanked Russian President Vladimir Putin for making the venture possible in such a short time.
  • The message of the Russian President Vladimir Putin was read out by Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman on the occasion.

AK-203 Rifle Manufacturing Unit:

  • The rifles will be manufactured in Amethi as a joint venture between India and Russia.
  • In the Amethi Manufacturing facility, world-famous Kalashnikov assault rifles of the newest 200 series would be manufactured.
  • This unit envisions full localisation of production over a period of time.
  • This new Kalashnikov assault rifles will fulfil the needs of national security agencies in this category of small arms, resting upon advanced Russian technologies.
  • The agreement for the joint venture was reached during the visit of President Putin to India last October.
  • The rifle manufacturing unit in Amethi symbolises the military and technical cooperation between India and Russia which has been the key areas of the strategic partnership between Russia and India.

Kalashnikov Rifles:

  • Kalashnikov Rifles were developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
  • The rifles were officially accepted by the Soviet Armed Forces in the year 1949.
  • Even after seven decades, the model and its variants remain the most popular and widely used assault rifles in the world because of their substantial reliability under harsh conditions, low production costs compared to contemporary Western weapons, availability in virtually every geographic region and ease of use.


GS 3: Internal Security| Security challenges & their management in border areas

Why in News?

The Union Home Ministry will inaugurate the project BOLD-QIT (Border Electronically Dominated QRT Interception Technique) under CIBMS (Comprehensive Integrated Border Management system) on India-Bangladesh border in Dhubri District of Assam.

Significance of the project:

The implementation of this project will not only help BSF to curb all type of cross border crimes but also provide respite to the troops from round the clock human surveillance.


  • BOLD-QIT is the project to install technical systems under the Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS).
  • It enables BSF to equip Indo-Bangla borders with different kind of sensors in unfenced riverine area of Brahmaputra and its tributaries.
  • The entire span of River Brahmaputra has been covered with data network generated by Microwave communication, OFC Cables, DMR Communication, day and night surveillance Cameras and intrusion detection system.
  • These modern gadgets provide feeds to BSF Control Rooms on the Border and enable BSF Quick Reaction Teams to thwart any possibility of Illegal Cross Border Crossing/ Crimes.


The 61 Kms of Border area in District Dhubri, Assam where River Brahmaputra enters into Bangladesh is consisting of vast char lands and innumerable river channels thus making border guarding in this area, a daunting task especially during rainy season.


Why in News?

Indian Border Security Force (BSF) and Border Guards Bangladesh (BGB) concluded a three-day Mainamati Maitree Exercise 2019 as a part of confidence-building measures between the two border guards.

Mainamati Maitree Exercise 2019:

  • The exercise was named after Mainamati hill range situated 8 km west of Comilla Township in Bangladesh, which is home to an ancient Buddhist archaeological site in the region.
  • The exercise was held in areas near Srimantapur in Sipahijala district, bordering Comilla district in Bangladesh.
  • The objective of Mainamati Maitree Exercise 2019 was to plan and conduct anti-smuggling and anti-criminal activity related operations with an aim to achieve better joint operational efficiency and border management in the area.
  • The exercise involved joint patrolling, anti-smuggling drills, and simulated raids on suspected places in both the countries and checking of goods and identity at international check posts.
  • After the Standoff between the Border Security Force (BSF) and Border Guards Bangladesh (BGB) around 31 Rohingya people who were were found crossing the international border into Bangladesh in January, series of joint exercises and exchanges are being held in the Tripura-Bangla frontier as part of the confidence-building measure.


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