Category: International Events

49th Annual Earth Day Observed

Why in News?

  • Earth Day 2019 observed on 22nd April 2019 marks the 49th annual Earth
  • Earth Day 2019 is observed with the theme ‘Protect Our Species’.


  • The theme ‘Protect Our Species’ aims to highlight that nature’s gifts to our planet are the millions of species
  • But unfortunately, human beings have irrevocably upset the balance of
  • As a result, the world is facing the greatest rate of extinction and the rapid extinction of species in our world today is the result of human Activity
  • The Earth Day 2019 through the theme ‘Protect our Species’ urges people to:
  • Educate and raise awareness about the accelerating rate of extinction of millions of species and the causes and consequences of this Phenomenon
  • Achieve major policy victories that protect broad groups of species as well as individual species and their habits
  • Build and activate a global movement that embraces nature and its Values
  • Encourage individual actions such as adopting a plant-based diet and stopping pesticide and herbicide


Earth Day:

  • Earth Day was formally proposed by John McConnell at the UNESCO conference on Environment in 1969. Later in 1971, a proclamation was signed to observe international Earth Day annually on the Vernal Equinox by UN Secretary-General U Thant
  • Since then, April 22nd is celebrated every year in more than 193 countries and the celebrations are coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network
  • Earth Day celebrations are a way to remind humans of the environmental deterioration caused by them and advise them to turn off the electronic devices that are not in use or taking public transport to reduce the emission Level
  • It recognises that Earth and its ecosystems provide its inhabitants with life and Sustence


Why in News?

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank have together launched a private blockchain with a pseudo-token- “Learning Coin”.


  • The new token, called “Learning Coin” is accessible within the IMF and World Bank
  • The main purpose of this token is to teach relevant individuals within the organizations about Blockchain
  • The coin has no real value, hence has the description of a pseudo-token.
  • Staff members who pass educational milestones will receive the tokens which can then be redeemed for certain rewards.

World Bank:

  • The World Bank was established in 1944
  • The World Bank is headquartered in Washington DC,USA
  • David Malpass is the current president of the World Bank


Why in News?

  • In the backdrop of the growing maritime engagement between India and Vietnam, the Indian Navy undertook the second edition of the bilateral maritime exercise between Indian Navy and Vietnam Peoples’ Navy at/ off Cam Ranh Bay,Vietnam


  • The maiden edition of the bilateral maritime exercise was conducted at Da Nang (from 21 to 26 May 18), Vietnam.
  • The exercise was undertaken as a part of the ongoing Overseas Deployment of Eastern Fleet ships to South East Asian Countries
  • The Indian Navy and the Vietnam Peoples’ Navy have traditionally shared good relations. Conduct of the bilateral exercise on an annual basis would give a further fillip to the existing strong bilateral relationship between the two countries, which since Sep 16 have been elevated to the level of Comprehensive Strategic Partnership’ after the visit of the Hon’ble PM to Vietnam.
  • The Navy to Navy cooperation involves a Composite Training Programme in the fields of Submarine, Aviation and Dockyard Training
  • The two countries have also signed an agreement to exchange White Shipping Information and have a running ‘Information Sharing’ programme.
  • The Indian Navy-Vietnam Peoples’ Navy Bilateral Exercise is a significant step in further strengthening mutual confidence and interoperability as well as sharing best practices between the Indian and the Vietnam Peoples’ Navies


Why in News?

  • International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has mandated new rules for national governments to introduce electronic information exchange between ships and ports


  • The new rules took effect from 8th of April 2019 and, seeks to make cross-border trade simpler and the logistics chain more Efficient
  • The requirement, mandatory under IMO’s Convention on Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic (FAL Convention), is part of amendments under the revised Annex to the FAL Convention, adopted in 2016

FAL Convention:

  • The Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic (FAL Convention) was adopted in 1965
  • The main objective of the convention is to achieve the most efficient maritime transport as possible, looking for smooth transit in ports of ships, cargo, and Passengers
  • Encourages the use of a “single window” for data, to enable all the information required by public authorities in connection with the arrival, stay and departure of ships, persons and cargo, to be submitted via a single portal, without Duplication
  • Under the requirement for electronic data exchange, all national authorities should now have provision for electronic exchange of this information

India’s Initiatives:

  • India launched a Port Community System — ‘PCS1x’— at ports in December 2018
  • Port Community System (PCS1x) is a cloud-based new generation technology, with a user-friendly interface. This system will enable maritime trade to have improved communication with the customs


  • The International Maritime Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations
  • IMO is responsible for measures to improve the safety and security of international shipping and to prevent pollution from Ships
  • It is also involved in legal matters, including liability and compensation issues and the facilitation of international maritime Traffic
  • It was established by means of a Convention adopted under the auspices of the United Nations in Geneva on 17 March 1948 and met for the first time in January 1959
  • It has 174 Member States


Why in News?

  • A two-day convention is being organised on 9-10th April 2019 by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH), an autonomous research organisation, Ministry of AYUSH on the occasion of the World Homoeopathy Day at Dr. Ambedkar International Centre in New


  • The World Homoeopathy Day is observed to commemorate the birth anniversary of the founder of Homoeopathy, Dr. Christian Fredrich Samuel
  • With an aim to recognise exemplary work in Homoeopathy, AYUSH awards relating toHomoeopathy for Life Time Achievement, Best Teacher, Young Scientist and Best Research paper will be conferred on this occasion.Homoeopathy (STSH) and four students for ‘Quality MD Dissertation in Homoeopathy’.
  • To education with research. The vision behind the agreement would be to provide impetus to MOU’s will be signed with two more PG Homoeopathic Colleges with an effort to link
  • This WHD, 24 students will be awarded scholarships under the Short Term Studentship in research infrastructure, which, in turn, further orient the students towards research.
  • A wide range of topics will be covered in the convention like Linking education and clinical practice with research, Homoeopathic Education: Research component, Utilisation of existing research by clinicians , Drug Development & Validation, Research initiatives by students under Studentship & MD Scholarship schemes , Documented clinical experiences, Homoeopathy in public health, Fortifying theories and clinical practice with research, Road ahead for Homoeopathy, Skill development in scientific writing, Strengthening research infrastructure in educational organisations, Drug Provings and Guidelines for Publishing Research.


GS 3: International Events

Why in News?

The United States on April 7, 2019 called for an immediate halt to military operations in Libya as the Libyan National Army headed by Khalifa Haftar advanced on the nation’s capital, Tripoli.


  • General Khalifa Haftar’s Libyan National Army (LNA) forces have been carrying out a multi-pronged attack from the south and west of Tripoli since April 4.
  • On April 7, LNA carried out its first air strike, a day after the UN-backed Government of National Accord (GNA) hit them with air strikes on April 6.
  • Around 11 people were killed and 23 wounded in clashes in southern Tripoli on April 7.
  • The UN had appealed for a two-hour truce so casualties and civilians could be evacuated, but the fighting continued.
  • International powers have begun evacuating personnel from Libya amidst the worsening security situation.
  • While the US Africa Command, responsible for US military operations and liaison in Africa temporarily relocated its contingent due to increased unrest, India also evacuated its full contingent of 15 CRPF peacekeepers due to the worsening situation in Libya

Libyan Crisis:

  • Libya has been torn by violence and political instability since long-time ruler Muammar Gaddafi was toppled and killed by rebels in 2011.
  • The crisis was triggered by the Arab Spring protests, a series of anti-government protests, uprisings and armed rebellions that spread across the Middle East in late 2010.
  • The protests led to a civil war, which invited intervention from a multinational coalition led by NATO forces to protect civilians against attacks by the government’s forces.
  • Gaddafi was ousted from power in the wake of the fall of Tripoli to the rebel forces in August 2011, although pockets of resistance held by forces loyal to Gaddafi’s government held out for another two months, especially in Gaddafi’s hometown of Sirte, which he declared as the new capital of Libya in September 2011.
  • Gaddafi’s regime finally came to an end in October 2011 with Sirte’s capture and his killing by rebel fighters.
  • The civil war’s aftermath and proliferation of armed groups led to violence and instability across the country, which erupted into renewed civil war in 2014 among rival groups seeking control of the territory of Libya.


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