CHILD HEALTH PROGRAMME UNDER NHM
25, Nov 2019
Prelims level : Social Issues Mains level : GS-II Issues relating to Development and management of Health
Why in News?
- Government of India is implementing Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child, Adolescent health and Nutrition (RMNCHAN) strategy to improve maternal and Child health outcome under National Health Mission (NHM).
The various interventions under RMNCHA+N strategy are as below:
- Promotion of Institutional deliveries through cash incentive under Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) and Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram (JSSK) which entitles all pregnant women delivering in public health institutions to absolutely free delivery including Caesarean section, post-natal care and treatment of sick infants till one year of age.
- Pradhan Matritvya Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) is another maternity benefit programme under which cash incentive of Rs. 5000 is provided to pregnant women and lactating mothers.
- Early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding for first six months and appropriate Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices are promoted under Mothers’ Absolute Affection (MAA) in convergence with Ministry of Women and Child Development.
- Village Health Sanitation and Nutrition Days (VHSNDs) are observed for provision of maternal and child health services and creating awareness on maternal and child care.
- Nutrition Rehabilitation Centres (NRCs) have been set up at public health facilities to treat and manage the children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) admitted with medical complications.
- Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is being supported to provide vaccination to children against life threatening diseases such as Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Polio, Tetanus, Hepatitis B, Measles, Rubella, Pneumonia and Meningitis caused by Haemophilus Influenzae B. The Rotavirus vaccination has also been rolled out in the country for prevention of Rotaviral diarrhoea. “Mission Indradhanush is targeted to immunize children who are either unvaccinated or partially vaccinated i.e. those that have not been covered during the rounds of routine immunization for various reasons. Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 2.0 is being planned as per road-map for achieving 90% full immunization coverage across the country.
- All the children from 0 to 18 years of age are screened for 30 health conditions classified into 4Ds – Diseases, Deficiencies, Defects and Developmental delay under “Rastriya Bal Swasthya Karyakaram” (RBSK).
- National Deworming Day (NDD) is implemented biannually every year for deworming of children (one to nineteen year of age).
- Name based tracking of mothers and children till two years of age is done through RCH portal to ensure complete antenatal, intranatal, postnatal care and immunization as per schedule.
- Capacity building of health care providers is regularly done to build and upgrade the skills in basic and comprehensive obstetric care of mother during pregnancy, delivery and for essential new-born care.
- Besides above programme and scheme, few newer initiatives started under RMNCHA+N are as follows:
- Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA) has been launched to provide fixed-day assured, comprehensive and quality antenatal care universally to all pregnant women on the 9th of every month.
- “LaQshya” programme aims to improve the quality of care in Labour room and Maternity operation theatres.
- Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan (SUMAN) initiative is focussed on assured delivery of maternal and newborn health care services encompassing wider access to quality care services, at no cost, zero tolerance for denial of services, assured management of complications along with respect for women’s autonomy and dignity.
- Defeat Diarrhoea (D2) initiative has been launched for promoting ORS and Zinc use and eliminating the diarrhoeal deaths by 2025.
- Social Awareness and Actions to Neutralize Pneumonia Successfully (SAANS) initiative is launched for reduction of Childhood morbidity and mortality due to Pneumonia.
- Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) strategy is a part of Poshan Abhiyan that aims to strengthen the existing mechanisms and foster newer strategies to tackle anaemia, which include testing & treatment of anaemia in school going adolescents & pregnant women, addressing non-nutritional causes of anaemia and a comprehensive communication strategy.