CHILE WITHDRAWS FROM HOSTING COP25 OF UNFCCC
01, Nov 2019
Prelims level : International Mains level : GS-III Conservation of Environment
Why in News?
- Chile has formally announced its withdrawal from hosting the 25th edition of United Nations Conference of Parties (COP) 25 on climate change.
- The COP is the pre-eminent climate meet, where world leaders decide on actions that must be taken to address global warming. Since it was first held in 1995 it has never once been cancelled.
- The COP 25 was to be held in Santiago, Chile from the 2nd-13th December until Chilean President announced that Chile would not be hosting the talks. The decision followed student protests in Santiago over a hike in rail metro fares and wealth inequality.
- It has to be noted that UN Secretariat at Bonn has previously stepped in when a country is unable to host. For e.g. In 2017, the COP was held in Bonn even though the presidency of the quorum was held by Fiji.
- The UNFCCC, signed in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development also known as the Earth Summit, the Rio Summit or the Rio Conference.
- The UNFCCC entered into force on March 21, 1994, and has been ratified by 197 countries.
- As of March 2019, UNFCCC has 197 parties.
- UNFCCC provides a framework for negotiating specific international treaties (called “protocols”) that aim to set binding limits on greenhouse gases.
- This treaty is considered legally non-binding and the treaty itself sets no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries.
Objective of UNFCCC:
- The Convention’s ultimate objective is “to achieve, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”.
What is Conference of Parties (COP)?
- COP is the supreme decision-making body of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
- All States that are Parties to UNFCCC are represented at COP.
- At COP, all parties review implementation of Convention and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of Convention.
Few facts about COP:
- The first COP (COP 1) was held in Berlin. (1995)
- Third COP (COP 3) was held in Kyoto, Japan (1997). It was here the famous Kyoto Protocol came in to existence.
- COP18 (2012)
- The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol is adopted.
- COP18 also launched a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
- COP 21 (Paris)2015
- Paris Agreement adopted which aims to keep global temperatures well below 2.0C (3.6F) above pre-industrial times and endeavor to limit them even more, to 1.5C.
- COP 24 -2018 Katowice (Poland).
COP President and Bureau:
- The office of the COP President normally rotates among the five United Nations regional groups. The President is usually the environment minister of his or her home country. S/he is elected by acclamation immediately after the opening of a COP session. Their role is to facilitate the work of the COP and promote agreements among Parties.
- The work of the COP and each subsidiary body is guided by an elected Bureau. To ensure continuity, it serves not only during sessions, but between sessions as well.