Prelims level : International Mains level : GS-III Conservation of Environment
No Set Found with this ID

 Why in News?

  • Chile has formally announced its withdrawal from hosting the 25th edition of United Nations Conference of Parties (COP) 25 on climate change.


  • The COP is the pre-eminent climate meet, where world leaders decide on actions that must be taken to address global warming. Since it was first held in 1995 it has never once been cancelled.
  • The COP 25 was to be held in Santiago, Chile from the 2nd-13th December until Chilean President announced that Chile would not be hosting the talks. The decision followed student protests in Santiago over a hike in rail metro fares and wealth inequality.
  • It has to be noted that UN Secretariat at Bonn has previously stepped in when a country is unable to host. For e.g. In 2017, the COP was held in Bonn even though the presidency of the quorum was held by Fiji.


  • The UNFCCC, signed in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development also known as the Earth Summit, the Rio Summit or the Rio Conference.
  • The UNFCCC entered into force on March 21, 1994, and has been ratified by 197 countries.
  • As of March 2019, UNFCCC has 197 parties.
  • UNFCCC provides a framework for negotiating specific international treaties (called “protocols”) that aim to set binding limits on greenhouse gases.
  • This treaty is considered legally non-binding and the treaty itself sets no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries.

Objective of UNFCCC:

  • The Convention’s ultimate objective is “to achieve, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”.

What is Conference of Parties (COP)?

  • COP is the supreme decision-making body of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). ‎
  • All States that are Parties to UNFCCC are represented at COP. ‎
  • At COP, all parties review implementation of Convention and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of Convention.

Few facts about COP:

  • The first COP (COP 1) was held in Berlin. (1995)
  • Third COP (COP 3) was held in Kyoto, Japan (1997). It was here the famous Kyoto Protocol came in to existence.
  • COP18 (2012)
  • The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol is adopted.
  • COP18 also launched a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol.
  • COP 21 (Paris)2015
  • Paris Agreement adopted which aims to keep global temperatures well below 2.0C (3.6F) above pre-industrial times and endeavor to limit them even more, to 1.5C.
  • COP 24 -2018 Katowice (Poland).

COP President and Bureau:

  • The office of the COP President normally rotates among the five United Nations regional groups. The President is usually the environment minister of his or her home country. S/he is elected by acclamation immediately after the opening of a COP session. Their role is to facilitate the work of the COP and promote agreements among Parties.
  • The work of the COP and each subsidiary body is guided by an elected Bureau. To ensure continuity, it serves not only during sessions, but between sessions as well.
Share Socially