08, Jul 2019
Prelims level : Economics- Agriculture Mains level : Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
- It is Kharif Crop.
- The research system of India has also developed some varieties having three basic colours in naturally coloured cotton -brown, grey and green belong to Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium arboreum species.
Condition for Growing Cotton:
- Long vegetation periods (175 to 225 days) without frost.
- Constant temperatures between 18 and 30°.
- Ample sunshine and fairly dry conditions.
- A minimum of 500 mm of water between germination and boll formation.
Deep, well-drained soils with a good nutrient content.
Benefits of Cotton:
- Edible oil for human consumption
- de-oiled cake as an animal feed
- Fabric Making Fibre.
- Cotton is the backbone of textile industry, which consumes 59 % of the country’s total fibre production.
Major Constraints in Cotton Production:
- Non availability of Canal Water at the optimum sowing time (North Zone)
- Salinity and Water logging in irrigated areas (North Zone)
- Acute Moisture stress during flowering and boll formation mainly in central and south zones.
- Cotton crop is highly prone to insect pests and diseases due to green succulent leaves, Long duration crop, Hot and humid weather, more fruiting bodies, Open flowers and soft Bolls.
- Inadequate efficient use of irrigation water through Micro irrigation devises.
Lack of awareness among the farmers about proper spraying of Pesticides / Bio pesticides.
- Non availability of standardized package of practices of Bt. cotton and organic cotton cultivation
- The Pink Bollworm is an insect known for being a pest in cotton farming.