Prelims level : Economics- Agriculture Mains level : Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
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  • It is Kharif Crop.
    • The research system of India has also developed some varieties having three basic colours in naturally coloured cotton -brown, grey and green belong to Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium arboreum species.

Condition for Growing Cotton:

  • Long vegetation periods (175 to 225 days) without frost.
  • Constant temperatures between 18 and 30°.
  • Ample sunshine and fairly dry conditions.
  • A minimum of 500 mm of water between germination and boll formation.
    Deep, well-drained soils with a good nutrient content.

Benefits of Cotton:

  • Edible oil for human consumption
  • de-oiled cake as an animal feed
  • Fabric Making Fibre.
  • Cotton is the backbone of textile industry, which consumes 59 % of the country’s total fibre production.

Major Constraints in Cotton Production:

  • Non availability of Canal Water at the optimum sowing time (North Zone)
  • Salinity and Water logging in irrigated areas (North Zone)
  • Acute Moisture stress during flowering and boll formation mainly in central and south zones.
  • Cotton crop is highly prone to insect pests and diseases due to green succulent leaves, Long duration crop, Hot and humid weather, more fruiting bodies, Open flowers and soft Bolls.
  • Inadequate efficient use of irrigation water through Micro irrigation devises.
    Lack of awareness among the farmers about proper spraying of Pesticides / Bio pesticides.
  • Non availability of standardized package of practices of Bt. cotton and organic cotton cultivation

Pink Bollworm:

  • The Pink Bollworm is an insect known for being a pest in cotton farming.
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