Prelims level : International event – Bilateral Relation Mains level : GS II - Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests
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  • India and the U.S. signed an inter-government agreement for the automatic exchange of country-by-country (CbC) reports, which will reduce the compliance burden for Indian subsidiary companies of U.S. parent companies.
  • This is a key step in making India compliant with the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project, of which it is an active participant.


  • India and the US can now exchange country-by-country (CbC) reports filed by the ultimate parent corporations based in either of the countries.
  • That is, the Companies headquartered in the US but having operations and taxability in India now need not file country-by-country (CbC) reports in India.
  • For such international companies, filing CbC reports in the US would be sufficient.
  • This will reduce the compliance burden on their subsidiaries operating out of these countries.


  • The Income-tax Act requires Indian subsidiaries of multinational companies to provide details of key financial statements from other jurisdictions where they operate.
  • This provides the I-T Department with better operational view of such companies, primarily with regards to revenue and income tax paid.
  • The provision was a part of the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) action plan, and later incorporated in I-T Act also.

Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS)

  • BEPS is a term used to describe tax planning strategies that exploit mismatches and gaps that exist between the tax rules of different jurisdictions.
  • It is done to minimise the corporation tax that is payable overall, by either making tax profits ‘disappear’ or shift profits to low tax jurisdictions where there is little or no genuine activity.
  • In general BEPS strategies are not illegal; rather they take advantage of different tax rules operating in different jurisdictions.
  • BEPS is of major significance for developing countries due to their heavy reliance on corporate income tax, particularly from multinational enterprises (MNEs).
  • The BEPS initiative is an OECD initiative, approved by the G20, to identify ways of providing more standardised tax rules globally.

Recent Agreements with US

  • CounteringAmerica’sAdversariesThroughSanctionsAct(CAATSA)
  • Strategic Trade Authorization-1 (STA-1)
  • National Advanced Surface-to-Air Missile System-II (NASAMS-II)
  • Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA)   Generalized System of Preferences (GSP)
  • India-USA: 2+2Dialogue
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