Prelims level : Constitutional Bodies, Regulatory Bodies Mains level : Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
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Why in news?

  • The dispute over Mahadayi river has resurfaced over the past few weeks and tensions have been rife between Goa and Karnataka.


  • The dispute over Mahadayi river starts in the 80s and grew stronger in the subsequent decades.
  • Karnataka move to design a number of dams, canals and barrages to route the Mahadayi river water to the Malaprabha basin.
  • The state claimed that channeling the river water into the Malaprabha basin, a tributary of the Krishna, would meet the requirements of water-scarce districts of baalkot, Gadag, Dharwad and Belagavi.
  • An inter-state water disputes tribunal has allotted 13.42 thousand million cubic feet of water (TMC) to Karnataka and 1.33 TMC to Maharashtra. Both Karnataka and Goa have contested the order and the matter is now pending in apex court.

Kalasa-Banduri Nala Project:

  • The Kalasa-Banduri Nala is a project undertaken by the Government of Karnataka to improve drinking water supply to the Districts of Belagavi, Dharwad and Gadag. It involves building across Kalasa and Banduri, two tributaries of the Mahadayi river to divert 7.56 TMC of water to the Malaprabha river, which supplies the drinking water needs of the said 3 districts, i.e., Dharwad, Belagavi and Gadag. This project had been on paper for decades and the Karnataka government decided to implement it during S M Krishna’s regime.

Inter-State River Water Disputes:

  • Water is in State subject as per entry 17 of State List.The entry 17 of state list deals with water and entry 56 of Union List gives power to the union Government for the regulation and development of inter-state river and river valleys.

Other active River Water Tribunals in India:

  • Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal II (2004) – Karnataka, Telangana,Andra Pradesh, Maharashtra
  • Mahanadi Water Disputes Tribunal (2018) – Odisha&Chhattisgarh
  • Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal (2010)- Goa,Karnataka, Maharashtra
  • Ravi& Beas Water Tribunal (1986)- Punjab, Haryana,Rajasthan
  • Vansdhara Water Disputes Tribunal (2010)- Andra Pradesh & Odisha.
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