Medical Instruments

10.1 X- RAYS

  • x- rays from the Coolidge
  • Suited for bone injuries (fractures)
  • High frequency  x- rays were used
  • Cannot change image plane without moving patient
  • Provides mismatch in bone structures
  • Hazardous due to radiations
  • Patients with metal implants can take x- ray scan

10.1  CT- SCAN

  • Computed (Axial) Tornography
  • Suited for above injuries, lung& chest imaging, cancer detection
  • X- rays attenuation detected byDAS detector system
  • Can change image plane
  • Prorides good details about the bony
  • Hazardous due to radiations
  • Patients with metal implants can take CT- Scan

10.1  MRI

  • Magnetic refe imaging
  • Suited for soft tissue evaluation Ex: Tendon
  • Large magnetic field is used to image
  • Change of image plane is possible in 3d isotropic MRI
  • Provides good details about the soft
  • No biological hazard is
  • Patients with metal implants are not allowed to take MRI


  • ECG is used to measure the electrical activity of heart
  • It is commonly performed to find the damages in the heart and also to find the speed of heart beat.


  • EEG is used to measure the electrical activity of
  • It is commonly performed to find the damages in neural calls of the


  • It is an important medical equipment used for the diagnostic process
  • Invented by : Renne Lennec in 1816

Function of Stethoscope :

  • It is used to analyse (hear) the sound produced by heart lungs and digestive
  • By adjusting the tuneable diaphragm we can able to pick up high & low frequency

Types of Stethoscope :

  • Acoustic stethoscope (Normal Telescope)
  • Electronic stethoscope also called Stethophone
  • Augculation stethoscope also called recording steth
  • Fetal stethoscope also called fetoscope (or) pinard’s Stethoscope used to listen heart sound of the fetus in pregnant women.
  • Doppler stethoscope operates on doppler’s effect.


  • Sphygmomanometer means blood pressure
  • It is mainly used to measure the systolic & diastolic
  • Blood pressure unit : mm/Hg
  • Normal Blood Pressure: 120/80mm/ HG

Functions :

  • It is used to measure the blood pressure
  • Also used to listen the Kortokoff sounds


  • Sound produced by the degiated blood flow of the artery
  • Capillary fragility best
  • To stop bleeding (or) stop poison from spreading to other parts.


  • It is a medical procedure used to view the internal organs non – surgically
  • Endoscope is inserted via the natural opening of the body

Types of Endoscopy :

  • Bronchoscopy : Examination of mouth, voice box,
  • Gastroscopy : Examination of stomach, duodenum
  • Colonoscopy : Examination of rectum
  • Cystoscopy : Examination of Bladder
  • Ureteroscopy : Examination of urinary bladder

Advantages :

  • It is often used to evaluate server stomach pain, ulcers, gastritis, digestive track
  • Can be performed without giving anaesthesia
  • No need for operation
  • No blood loss

Disadvantages :

  • High cost
  • Chance to tear the abdominal valve and cause bleedings


  • An angiogram is an imaging test that uses x- rays to view our blood
  • This test is also called as the arteriogram (If arteries were examined) (Or) vein gram ( if veins were examined)


  • In this a Catheters tube is inserted via a femoral artery to the heart vessels to remove blocking substances (lipids) in the arteries
  • This is an extreme case of angiogram

Advantages :

  • PAD (Peripheral Artery Disease ) can be identified and rectified
  • Aneurysms (enlargements of arteries ) can be
  • Reno vascular conditions (kidney artery conditions can be overviewed)
  • Vascular malfunction can be identified
  • Coronary angiogram is used to inspect inside the coronary arteries.


  • It is an instrument used for counting the cells in the blood (or) fluid
  • The technique used here is Haemocytometer


  • It is the method of determining the total number of cells accurately
  • Low cost for testing

Disadvantage :

  • Can be inspected by microscope
  • Possible for source
  • Non uniform suspensions of blood cell cause error in


  • It is an automated analyser
  • It is used for the CFA (Continuous flow Analysis)
  • It is an automated chemical testing laboratory

Advantages :

  • It is used to determine the level of albumins, alkaline, products blood urea nitrogen, bilirubin, calcium, cholesterol, uric acid, glucose, creatinine, proteins, blood …
  • It can analyze hundreds of blood samples at a time

Disadvantage :

  • It depends completely on the colour reactions, in which photometer is used for the analysis so a very expertise technician is


  • It is  a  battery-powered implantable device that provides electrical stimulation stimulation to the heart.
  • It helps the patients with very slow heart beats.
  • Pacemaker was invented by Hopps.
  • Pacemaker was in the top – 5 list of medical innovation
  • It is used to treat arrhythmias it is a condition in which the heart beat is too fast (or) slow (or) with irregular rhythm.

Advantage :

  • Complete technological cure for arrhythmias, tachycardia
  • It coordinates electrical signals of heart
  • CRT (Cardiac Resynchronization Theory) has been implemented successfully to treat heart failure.

Disadvantage :

  • Once pacemaker is installed in our body. Then we are not able  to take MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging ) scans.
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