Prelims level : National Conservation & Mitigation Mains level : GS-III Conservation, Environment Pollution and Degradation, Environment Impact Assessment
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Why in News?

  • Recently, Kerala Government has initiated Miyawaki method of afforestation to add green cover..

About Miyawaki method:

  • It is pioneered by Akira Miyawaki, Japanese botanist. He is an expert in the field of Natural forest and restoration.
  • Native Forest Plan to improve
    • 1.Environment Protection

      2.Water Retention Resources

      3.Protect against natural hazards

  • Annual Plants on a barren land which has a life cycle for one year are succeed by grass, shrubs, trees and forest. The climax vegetation will be formed only after 2 years.

About ‘Native for by Native trees’ method:

  • It was first applied in Japan by Akira Miyawaki.
  • He chooses native trees after testing surface where it obtains its nourishment.
  • He created nursery, were the plants were mixed and planted them on site.

About Plantation of Trees:

  • This method uses dense plantation with in a small area, to stir competition between species.
  • It also helps in eliminate the need for pesticides and insecticides.
  • Generally, plantation method we could have about 400 plants per acre but in Miyawaki method around 10,000 plants per acre can be planted.
  • BY doing dense plantation there will be a Phytosociological relation.

About Steps Involved in This Method:

  • It involves the surveying the potential Natural Vegetation of the area which is to be afforested.
  • The top soil is recovered up to depth of 20 -30 cm by mixing the soil and compost (it is prepared from organic material), which helps in reducing the soil evolution period.
  • The Choice of tree species to restore multilayer natural forest or quasi natural forest. It involves mixing to intermediate species and late successional species and densely planted with as many companions as possible.
  • The soil between the plants are mulched (it is a practice of covering the soil with organic materials like straw, grass etc). It is used to protect soil erosion on slopes, prevent weed growth and to protect seedlings against cold.
    • It is mentioned that multilayer natural forest can be built in 15-20 years in Japan and 45-50 years in South East Asia. The successful countries using this method are Japan, Malaysia, South East Asia, Brazil, chile and china.

Significance of the Method:

  • It involves Quick Environmental Restoration of strongly degraded areas.
  • It gives rich, dense and efficient protective pioneer forest in 20-30 years.
  • The soil is rich in microbial activity, which leads to quick production of multi-layer forest. It helps in increasing green cover in urban areas by effective utilization of land.
  • It is used to mitigate the effects of Tsunami, that is the trees more resilient to storms and high-velocity winds.
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