NEW PAPER-BASED TEST KIT FOR MALARIA DETECTION
12, Jun 2019
Prelims level : Mains level :
GS 3 : Science & Technology – Achievements Of Indians In S&T
Why in News?
- With over one million reported cases in 2017, malaria still continues to be a burden for India and most countries of Southeast Asia.
- Now, a group of researchers from IIT Guwahati has developed a simple detection method that uses an instrument when in the lab or a piece of chromatographic paper when in the field.
Paper Test Kit for Malaria:
- The kit can be used to detect Plasmodium parasite, which causes malaria and also specifically detect Plasmodium falciparum, a notorious species.
- Using an ordinary syringe fitted with a small magnet, magnetic beads and few chemicals inside, the researchers were able to specifically capture the antigen released by the parasites in the blood of malaria patients.
- As the blood has many interfering agents, the kit used magnetic bead–tethered aptamers (two small DNA molecules), which capture only the specific antigens and separate these from the blood serum to perform the reaction.
- This kit also has high stability in hot and humid conditions.
- When the captured antigens interact with specific substrates inside the syringe, the blue dye turns pink. The dye is then adsorbed over a modified chromatographic paper.
- The formation of pink colour on the paper is a direct indication of the presence of parasites in the blood serum. The intensity of the colour increases when the concentration of antigen is high.
- The intensity of the colour change is measured using a spectrophotometer. This gives a quantitative measurement and can detect very low level of the antigen in blood.
- Malaria is a potentially life-threatening parasitic disease caused by the parasites Plasmodium viviax (P.vivax), P.falciparum, P.malariae, and P.ovale transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito.
- World’s first Malaria Vaccine RTS,S (Mosquirix) was recently unveiled.
Incidence of Malaria in India:
- India ranks very high in the list of countries with a serious malaria burden.
- In 2018, 3,99,134 cases of malaria and 85 deaths due to the disease were reported in the country, according to data from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme.
- Six states — Odisha (40%), Chhattisgarh (20%), Jharkhand (20%), Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and Mizoram (5-7%) — bear the brunt of malaria in India.
- These states, along with the tribal areas of Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh, account for 90% of India’s malaria burden.