Prelims level : Environment Mains level : Technology, Economic Development, Bio diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management
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Why in News:

  • Severe Cyclone Fani rendered not only several thousand people homeless as it tore along India’s east coast, but also dealt a body blow to wildlife and forest resources in the region.


  • The scenic stretch along the tree-lined Marine Drive that bisects the Balukhand Wildlife Sanctuary adjacent to the Bay of Bengal between Puri and Konark, is now a wasteland with hardly any tree left untouched.
  • the cyclone damaged nearly 55 lakh trees, mostly casuarinas, The devastation has left around 400 spotted deer homeless
  • In Bhubaneswar, the cyclone had uprooted decades-old trees inside the Nandankanan Zoological Park
  • The Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary, has also been impacted with thousands of trees uprooted.
  • hundreds of displaced monkeys have entered residential colonies in the periphery of Bhubaneswar.

Bhitarkanika National Park

  • Bhitarkanika National Park is a national park located in Kendrapara district of Odisha in eastern India.
  • It was designated as national park on 16 September 1998 and as a Ramsar site on 19 August 2002.
  • Gahirmatha Beach and Marine Sanctuary lies to the east, and separates swamp region cover with canopy of mangroves from the Bay of Bengal.
  • The national park is home to saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), Indian python, King cobra, black ibis, darters and many other species of flora and fauna.
  • It hosts a large number of mangrove species, and is the second largest mangrove ecosystem in India

Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM):

  • Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) or Integrated coastal management (ICM) is a process for the management of the coast using an integrated approach, regarding all aspects of the coastal zone, including geographical and political boundaries, in an attempt to achieve sustainability. It is a World Bank assisted project.
  • The ICZM plan involves identification of infrastructure requirements and livelihood improvement means in coastal districts. Conservation of mangroves is among the components.
  • The national component of the project includes mapping of the country’s coastline and demarcation of the hazard line
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