Prelims level : Nil Mains level : GS II Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations
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Enclave exchange settlements

  • The India–Bangladesh enclaves, also known as the chitmahals and sometimes called pasha enclaves, were the enclaves along the Bangladesh–India border in Bangladesh and the Indian states of west Bengal, Tripura, Assam, and Meghalaya.


  • The Land Boundary Agreement was signed on 16 May 1974 between Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman which provided for the exchange of enclaves and the surrender of adverse possessions.


  • It becomes the responsibilities of the governments of India and Bangladesh to ensure that there is no discrimination against them. The deal also opens the door for collaboration with Bangladesh for transit facilities to India’s landlocked North-East, a long-standing demand of India crucial for developing the vast insurgency-riven region.
  • This deal also helps check illegal migration which has been a major problem which has been termed as demographic invasion driving to out populate indigenous community and region. Smuggling of goods, drugs, trafficking of women and children can all also be put under check.
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