Prelim Snippets- 04.02.2020

1. Flame-Throated Bulbul

Why in News?
  • Recently, the flame-throated bulbul has been chosen as the mascot of the 36th National Games.
About Flame-Throated Bulbul:
  • It also called the Rubigula, which is the state bird of Goa.
  • It is endemic to southern peninsular India where it is locally distributed in southern Andhra Pradesh, eastern Karnataka, Goa, Orissa, eastern Kerala and northern Tamil Nadu.
  • It prefers habitats like rocky, scrub-covered hills mostly in the Eastern Ghats and central peninsular India but also in some places in the Western Ghats.
  • Its IUCN status is Least Concern.
  • It is under the Schedule – IV bird in India’s Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.

2. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)

Why in News?
  • According to the Crime in India Report by NCRB, the highest number of women and children who go missing in the country are from Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
  • According to the report, the States where the highest number of women went missing in the three years are Maharashtra, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh.
  • The maximum number of missing reports were recorded in Maharashtra and West Bengal in 2016, 2017 and 2018.
  • The study said that in Madhya Pradesh, Indore reported the highest number of missing children, with 596 in 2017 and 823 in 2018.
About NCRB:
  • It was set-up in 1986 under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators.
  • It is headquartered in New Delhi. It was set up based on the recommendations of the National Police Commission (1977-1981) and the MHA’s Taskforce (1985).
  • It was constituted by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Inter-State Criminals Data Branch of CBI, Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI and Statistical Branch of BPR&D.
  • It brings out the annual comprehensive statisticsof crime across the country through ‘Crime in India’ report.
  • It is Being published since 1953, the report serves as a crucial tool in understanding the law and order situation across the Country.

3. Dead Star Dragging Spacetime

Why in News?
  • Astronomers have recently discovery that a dead star in space is dragging spacetime around itself.
  • The scientific phenomenon is not a new one as Einstein himself predicted that any spinning body drags the fabric of spacetime in his general theory of relativity, and coined the process “frame-dragging.”
  • Researchers were able to finally see the theory proven after scientists searched for an example with a greater gravitational pull, and found one in a white dwarf and neutron star pair. Scientists measured when the light flashes of the pulsars would arrive on Earth for a period of over 20 years. Over the two decades, they noticed that there were slight changes in their calculations, meaning the object had “drifted” from its original location.
  • Since there were no other explanations for the movement, astronomers realized that the gravitational force of the pairing had caused the pulsar’s orbit to change its orientation over time by altering spacetime around it.
  • Even after 100 years, the theory of general relativity continues to pass tests as its predictions are found to agree with new observations. Just a few years ago, one major aspect was finally confirmed, gravitational waves.
  • Spacetime is any mathematical model which fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional manifold. Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects, such as why different observers perceive where and when Events Occur Differently.

4. Sophisticated Analytical & Technical Help Institutes (SATHI)

Why in News?
  • DST launches SATHI Initiative for building shared, professionally managed strong S&T infrastructure.
  • To address the need for building shared, professionally managed and strong Science and Technology infrastructure in the country which is readily accessible to academia, start-ups, manufacturing, industry and R&D labs, the Department of Science & Technology (DST) has launched a unique scheme called “Sophisticated Analytical & Technical Help Institutes (SATHI)”.
  • These Centres are expected to house major analytical instruments to provide common services of high-end analytical testing, thus avoiding duplication and reducing dependency on foreign sources. These would be operated with a transparent, open access policy.
  • DST has already set up three such centres in the country, one each at IIT Kharagpur, IIT Delhi and Banaras Hindu University (BHU).
  • It is planned to set up five SATHI Centres every year for the next four years.
  • SATHI will address the problems of accessibility, maintenance, redundancy and duplication of expensive equipment in Indian institutions, while reaching out to the less endowed organizations in need, e.g., industry, MSMEs, start-ups and State Universities.
  • This will also foster a strong culture of collaboration between institutions and across disciplines to take advantage of developments, innovations and expertise in diverse areas.

5. Virtual Museums

Why in News?
  • Ministry of Culture has developed three Virtual Experiential Museums.
Virtual Museums:
  • In 2016, the Ministry of Culture was given the task of establishing Virtual Museums in at least 50 locations.
  • Subsequently, the Ministry has developed three Virtual Experiential Museums:

    1. Man Mahal at Varanasi
    2. Ajanta Caves at National Museum, Delhi
    3. Humayun Tomb in Delhi

  • The last two are under development.
  • There is a proposal to develop a National Virtual Experiential Site Museum at Vadnagar, Gujarat.
Man Mahal Virtual Museum:
  • Situated at the Man Mahal on the banks of the Ganges near Dashashwamedh ghat, the Museum offers visitors a virtual tour of the ancient city of Varanasi and its cultural and spiritual aspects.
  • It is set up by the National Council of Science Museum (NCSM), under the Union Ministry of Culture.
  • The museum offers visitors the experience of holy ghats, classical music, the weaving of sari, Ram Leela, 3D view of monuments, narrow lanes and betel shops among other heritages of the city.
  • There is a laser light show about the mythology and history of the river Ganga, and guests can also engage in virtual activities such as offering diyas or ringing bells in the river.
Man Mahal:
  • Man Mahal is a palace from the 16th century.
  • Man Mahal Ghat was built in 1600 by Maharaja Man Singh of Amer along with the palace known for its magnificent building with exquisite ornate window carvings and also for an observatory on the roof.
  • The observatory was made by the son of Man Singh (Sawai Jai Singh) in 1710, on the terrace of Man Mahal to calculate astronomical and astrological data.
  • Jantar Mantar is the highlight of the observatory which is similar to the Jantar Mantar located in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain and Mathura.
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