1. Anak Krakatau

Why in News?
  • Recently, Indonesia’s Anak Krakatau volcano spewed a column of ash 500 meters into the sky, which is the longest eruption since its explosive collapse in 2018.
About Anak Krakatoa (Child of Krakatoa):
    • It one of the active volcanoes of Indonesia also houses 127 active volcanoes and one of these volcanoes is the Anak Krakatau
    • It is an island in a caldera in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in the Indonesian province of Lampung.
    • It is the offspring of the famous Krakatau volcano, whose monumental eruption in 1883 triggered a period of global cooling.

  • In 1927, Anak Krakatoa emerged from the caldera formed in 1883 by the explosive volcanic eruption that destroyed the island of Krakatoa.

2. Seismic Noise

Why in News?
  • Recently, the Royal Observatory in Belgium has observed a 30-50 per cent fall in levels of ambient seismic noise since schools and businesses were closed in mid-March.
About:
  • The Seismic Noise refers to the relatively persistent vibration of the ground due to a multitude of causes.
  • It is the unwanted component of signals recorded by a seismometer.
  • It includes vibrations caused due to human activity, such as transport and manufacturing, and makes it difficult for scientists to study seismic data that is more valuable.
  • As per the study, due to the enforcement of lockdown measures around the world to tackle the novel coronavirus pandemic, the Earth’s crust has shown reduced levels of vibration.
  • Due to lower noise levels, scientists are now hoping that they would be able to detect smaller earthquakes and tremors that had slipped past their instruments so far.
  • It is also studied in other fields such as oil Exploration, Hydrology, and Earthquake Engineering.

3. YUKTI – Young India Combating COVID with Knowledge, Technology and Innovation

Why in News?
  • Recently, Union Ministry for Human Resource and Development (HRD)has launched a web-portal YUKTI (Young India Combating COVID with Knowledge, Technology and Innovation) in New Delhi.
YUKTI web portal:
  • It’s a unique portal and dashboard to monitor and record the efforts and initiatives of MHRD.
  • The portal intends to cover the different dimensions of COVID-19 challenges in a very holistic and comprehensive way.
  • It will cover the various initiatives and efforts of the institutions in academics, research especially related to CoVID, social initiatives by institutions and the measures taken for the betterment of the total wellbeing of the students.
  • The portal will cover both qualitative and quantitative parameters for effective delivery of services to the academic community at large.
  • It will also allow various institutions to share their strategies for various challenges which are there because of the unprecedented situation of COVID-19 and other future initiatives.
  • The portal will give inputs for better planning and will enable MHRD to monitor effectively its activities for the coming six months.
  • The portal will also establish a two-way communication channel between the Ministry of HRD and the institutions so that the Ministry can provide the necessary support system to the institutions.
  • The portal will help in critical issues related to student promotion policies, placements related challenges and physical and mental well-being of students in these challenging times.
Significance:
  • In these difficult times, the portal is an effort of the HRD Ministry to achieve the goals of
    • keeping our academic community healthy, both physically & mentally and
    • enable a continuous high-quality learning environment for learners.
  • The web platform Yukti aims to epitomize its name and prove to be a great enabler in taking the research to the ultimate stakeholders, the citizens of India.

4. National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)

Why in News?
  • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) asked the Union Ministry of Home Affairs to address the concerns of the mentally ill people on the streets during the lockdown to check the spread of the novel coronavirus.
  • The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 defines Human Rights as the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India.
Highlights:
  • The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India is an autonomous public body constituted in 1993.
  • It was given a statutory basis by the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 (PHRA).
  • It is in conformity with the Paris Principles, adopted at the first international workshop on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights held in Paris in October 1991, and endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
  • Recommendations given by NHRC are just advisory and not binding in nature.
  • Apart from enquiry into complaints of violation of human rights or negligence in the prevention of such violation by a public servant, the Commission also studies treaties and international instruments on human rights and make recommendations to the Government.
Composition:
    • The NHRC (National Human Rights Commission) consists of:
      • A Chairperson, retired Chief Justice of India
      • One Member who is, or has been, a Judge of the Supreme Court of India
      • One Member who is, or has been, the Chief Justice of a High Court
      • Two Members to be appointed from among persons having knowledge of, or practical experience in, matters relating to human rights
      • In addition, the Chairpersons of four National Commissions of

(1. Minorities 2. SC and ST 3. Women) serve as Ex Officio Members.

5. NRLM Self Help Group

Why in News?
  • The motivated, enthusiastic and committed women members of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) across the country formed under the Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) is contributing in addressing COVID-19 outbreak in India.
Highlights:
  • These women are engaged in livelihoods activities, bringing social change through awareness generation, leading movements and responding during natural calamities.
    • During the on-going crisis, SHG members have emerged as community warriors by contributing in every possible way to contain the spread of COVID-19.
    • The SHG network across the country was made aware of the various aspects of the disease (personal hygiene, social distancing etc.) through Audio Visual (AV) IEC material and advisories developed by the Health Ministry which were circulated to all State Rural Livelihoods Missions (SRLMs).
    • In Tamil Nadu, two volunteers of SHGs are assigned to each PDS shop. They are provided gloves, masks and sanitisers and they ensure that people in the queue maintain adequate distance.
    • Some More Important Interventions by Various SRLMs are Mentioned here:
    • JEEViKA,Bihar stepped in and started working on IEC materials that would help in awareness and preparedness for the outbreak.
    • Rangolis for Awareness:SHG women from UP SRLM ‘Prerna’ have used their creativity to make rangolis and mark lines and circles to re-emphasise the need for ‘social distancing’. They have also been making wall paintings to spread key messages about COVID prevention in their communities.
    • Didi Helpline:The Didi helpline, a telephonic helpline initiated by Jharkhand SRLM, is open 24 hours to help migrant labourers by providing them verified  It enables them to provide their data to state authorities to help evacuate them from different states, back to Jharkhand.
    • Efforts to Dispel Fake News:Notable efforts have been made by women of Kudumbashree in Kerala, to help dispel the widespread fake news that causes  Through its network of WhatsApp groups, Kudumbasree is trying to propagate only the right information to the community.
    • These platforms are used specifically to disseminate immediate, authentic
    • information and updates on the outbreak and precautionary measures.
  • Through many similar responsible collective actions organized across the nation, marginalised and vulnerable women of these communities have played a significant role in the war against Coronavirus while being empowered both socially and economically.
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