Prelim Snippets 13-07-2019


  • Also called, POSHAN Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission) is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD).
  •  The Goals of NNM are to achieve improvement in nutritional status of:
    • Children from 0-6 years,
    • Adolescent Girls,
    • Pregnant Women and
    • Lactating Mothers in a time bound manner during the next three years beginning 2017-18.
  • The Mission aims to prevent and reduce prevalence of:
    • Stunting among children (0-6 years) in the country by 6%,
    • Undernutrition (underweight) prevalence among children (0-6 years) by 6%,
    • Prevalence of anemia among children (6-59 m) by 9%,
    • Prevalence of anemia among women (15-49 years) by 9% and
    • Reduction in prevalence of low birth weight by 6%.


  •       Line of Control (LOC) defines the boundary separating parts of Kashmir controlled by India and Pakistan,
  •       LOC is a demarcated border marked by the militaries.

 Line of Control (LOC):

  •  Originally known as the Cease-fire Line, it was re-designated as the “Line of Control” following the Shimla Agreement, which was signed on 3 July 1972.
  • The part of the former princely state that is under Indian control is known as Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The Pakistani-controlled part is divided into Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan.
  • The northernmost point of the Line of Control is known as NJ9842.
  • Another ceasefire line separates the Indian-controlled state of Jammu and Kashmir from the Chinese-controlled area known as Aksai Chin.
  • The Line of Control divided Kashmir into two parts and closed the Jhelum valley route, the only entrance and exit of the Kashmir Valley at that time.
  • This territorial division, which to this day still exists, severed many villages and separated family members from each other.


  • Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index that shows the performance of different industrial sectors of the Indian economy.
  • The IIP is estimated and published on a monthly basis by the Central Statistical Organisation (CSO).
  • As an all India index, it gives general level of industrial activity in the economy.
  • It is a composite indicator that measures the short-term changes in the volume of production of a basket of industrial products during a given period with respect to that in a chosen base period.
  • The current base year for IIP is 2011-12
  • The IIP is used by public agencies including the Government agencies/ departments including that in the Ministry of Finance, the Reserve Bank of India etc. for policy purposes.
  • The all-India IIP data is used for estimation of Gross Value Added of Manufacturing sector on quarterly basis.
  • Following are the three sectors of the IIP as per the revision based on 2011-12 series.



  • India and Russia have held high-level talks in New Delhi to elevate bilateral co-operation to the next level in the field of space, including assistance in India’s maiden human space flight mission ‘Gaganyaan’.

Government Space Agencies & Related Countries:

JAPANJapan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
RUSSIARussian Federal Space Agency (RFSA or Roscosmos)
INDIAIndian Space Research Organization (ISRO)
UNITED STATESNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
CHINAChina National Space Administration (CNSA)


  •  “LaQshya” (Labour room Quality improvement Initiative) to improve quality of care in labour room and maternity operation theatres in public health facilities.
  • It’s a multipronged approach focused at Intrapartum and immediate postpartum period.
  • Aim: To reduce preventable maternal and newborn mortality, morbidity and stillbirths associated with the care around delivery in Labour room and Maternity Operation Theatre and ensure respectful maternity care.


  • To reduce maternal and newborn mortality & morbidity due to hemorrhage, retained placenta, preterm, preeclampsia and eclampsia, obstructed labour, puerperal sepsis, newborn asphyxia, and newborn sepsis, etc.
  • To improve Quality of care during the delivery and immediate post-partum care, stabilization of complications and ensure timely referrals, and enable an effective two-way follow-up system.
  • To enhance satisfaction of beneficiaries visiting the health facilities and provide Respectful Maternity Care (RMC) to all pregnant women attending the public health facilities.


  • Line of Actual Control (LAC) defines boundary between India and China.
  • It is not demarcated and consists of a vast empty space

Line of Actual Control (LAC):

  • The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a demarcation line that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.
  • Line of Actual Control is the effective military border which separates Indian controlled areas of Jammu and Kashmir from Aksai Chin.
  • It is the effective border between People’s Republic of China and India. It is nearly 4,057 km long.
  • It touches Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himanchal and Sikkim of Indian states.
  •  This border is not a legally recognized international boundary, but rather it is the practical boundary.
  • The term “LAC” gained legal recognition in Sino-Indian agreements signed in 1993 and 1996.
  • The 1996 agreement states, “No activities of either side shall overstep the line of actual control.
  • There are two common ways in which the term “Line of Actual Control” is used.
  • In the narrow sense, it refers only to the line of control in the western sector of the borderland between the two countries.
  • In that sense, the LAC forms the effective border between the two countries together with the (also disputed) McMahon Line in the east, and a small undisputed section in between.

Key Differences between LOC & LAC:

Full FormLine of ControlLine of Actual Control
BorderEffective border between India and Pakistan controlled parts of kashmirEffective border between India Controlled and China Territory
Length776- Kilometer4,057-Km Long
Traversing PathPakistan calls Azad Jammu and the Northern Areas administered by Pakistan and two – thirds, Jammu, Ladakh and the Kashmir Valley, Administered by India.It traverses three areas of Northern Indian States: Western (Ladakh Kashmir), Middle (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh) and Eastern (Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh)
AppearanceIt is a live with a lot of activity, it is clearly demarcated by the MilitariesNot Demarcated and comprises of big empty regions and nearly 50 to 100 kms distance is maintained between the two armies.


What is 301 Probe:

  • Section 301 of the U.S. Trade Act of 1974 authorizes the President to take all appropriate action, including retaliation, to obtain the removal of any act, policy, or practice of a foreign government that violates an international trade agreement or is unjustified, unreasonable, or discriminatory, and that burdens or restricts U.S. commerce.

India-U.S.A. Trade Issue:

  • Concerns among Indian policymakers is that the Trump administration may push for a free trade agreement with India that could dent India’s competitiveness, lead to a flurry of imports and hurt India.
  • U.S.A’s Stand: Trade should be a bigger part of the strategic partnership and that a free trade pact “is the ultimate example of economic integration”.
  • Trade between and India and US were worth $142.1bn in 2018, with India having a surplus of $24.2bn.
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