1.Jallianwala Bagh Massacre
Why in News?
- Victoria Memorial Hall will host an exhibition on the worst blot of the British Empire, the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919 for the First Time.
About Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:
- An unarmed but large crowd had gathered on 13 April 1919 at Jallianwala Bagh to protest against the arrest of their popular leaders, Dr. Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal.
- Jallianwala Bagh (located in Amritsar, Punjab) was a large open space which was enclosed on three sides by buildings and had only one exit.
- General Dyer surrounded the Bagh (garden) with his army until closed the exit with his troops, and then ordered his men to shoot onto the trapped crowd.
- They fired till their ammunition was exhausted. Thousands were killed and wounded.
- After this massacre, martial law was proclaimed throughout the Punjab and the people were submitted to most uncivilized atrocities.
- The Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919 in Amritsar as a “shameful scar” on British Indian history.
- It is also called as Massacre of Amritsar and one of the most tragic yet landmark events in the history of India.
- This massacre exposed the inhuman approach of the British when the British troop cold- bloodedly open fire into an unarmed crowd without any warning by General Dyer which had assembled at enclosed park for the public meeting that was banned.
Why in News?
- With warning over poor state finances by both the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the Finance Commission, the government is likely to review its flagship Ujwal Discom Assurance Yojana (UDAY) scheme.
- UDAY scheme is posing some financial challenge, especially in terms of state finance companies.
- Increasing state debt on account of power sector is a problem and both the finance ministry and the power ministry is about to review the scheme.
- UDAY Scheme was launched by Union Power Ministry for financial turnaround and revival package for state electricity distribution companies (DISCOMs). It aimed to help to make discoms financially and operationally healthy so they can supply adequate power at affordable rates.
- Under it, State Governments were to take over up to 75% of their respective discoms’ debt by issuing sovereign bonds to pay back the lenders. Remaining 25% of debt will be issued by discoms in the form of bonds.
3.India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI)
Why in News?
- The India Hypertension Control Initiative (IHCI) launched in four districts of the State has been able to control hypertension in about 35% of the people covered under the initiative.
- Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
- Usually hypertension is defined as blood pressure above 140/90, and is considered severe if the pressure is above 180/120.
- High BP often has no symptoms. Over time, if untreated, it can cause health conditions, such as heart disease and stroke.
- Eating a healthier diet with less salt, exercising regularly and taking medication can help lower blood pressure.
- The IHCI was launched in Kerala in April 2018 as a multi-partner five-year initiative with the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Indian Council of Medical Research, State government, and WHO India.
- The IHCI was also launched in Madhya Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, and Punjab.
- The results from Kerala had been the most impressive so far because of the infrastructure strength of non-communicable disease clinics across the State.
- Each patient was given a treatment book and the health card was kept at the hospital.
- Every month there was a follow-up on the patient by the hospital over the phone or by visit of an Accredited Social Work Activist.
- With the success of the initiative, the government is considering replicating it in other districts too.
- A total of 2.23 lakh people — 72,460 in Thiruvananthapuram, 74,909 in Thrissur, 58,818 in Kannur, and 19,009 in Wayanad — were registered for the IHCI.
- Of 4,530 patients among them, 40% in Thiruvananthapuram, 32% in Thrissur, 37% in Kannur and 24% in Wayanad could better control their health parameters.
- This study group’s parameters for blood pressure (BP) control were followed up from July to September 2019.
- This is a marked change from the average of 13% of people having control of hypertensive parameters recorded in non-communicable disease (NCD) clinics in the State (data inferred from NCD clinics).
- In the IHCI study group, those with uncontrolled blood pressure in these districts were put at 43%, 37%, 38% and 27%.
- In the group, 15%, 31%, 25%, and 49% had also defaulted because of various reasons – change of address, change in treatment system or others.
4. Spicules in the Sun
Why in News?
- One of the puzzles concerning is the Sun’s surface and atmospheric temperature.
- A team of researchers has observed the reason why Sun’s Atmosphere is Hotter than its Surface.
Anomaly of the Sun’s Temperature:
- The temperature at the core of the Sun is nearly 15 million degrees Celsius, while that at its surface layer, known as the photosphere, is merely 5,700 degrees C.
- The natural thing to expect is that still further outwards, in its atmosphere, known as the corona, the temperatures would be comparable to that at the surface (photosphere).
- However, the temperature of the corona is much higher.
- It starts increasing outside the photosphere, reaching a value of about one million degrees or more in the corona.
- One would expect that as there are no extra sources of heat, when you move away from a hot object, the temperature steadily decreases.
- However, with respect to the Sun, after dropping to a low, the temperature again rises to one million degrees in the corona which stretches over several million kilometres from the surface of the Sun.
- This implies there should be a source heating the corona. The puzzle of coronal heating has been tackled by many theories.
- Now, in a research paper, the team of solar physicists has made observations and matched it with an analysis that explains this Conundrum.
Spicules in the Sun:
- The key to the puzzle lies in geyser-like jets known as solar spicules that emanate from the interface of the corona and the photosphere.
- While in a photograph these look like tiny hairlike projections, they are in fact 200-500 kilometres wide and shoot up to heights of about 5,000 km above the solar surface.
- It has been suspected that these spicules act as conduits through which mass and energy from the lower atmosphere bypass the photosphere and reach the corona.
- These spicules heat up while propagating upward, reaching the coronal temperature.
- They are made of plasma – a mixture of positive ions and negatively charged electrons.The coronal plasma emits light in extreme ultraviolet.
Why in News?
- The launch of a special winter-grade diesel, developed by Indian Oil Corporation (Indian Oil), for the high-altitude regions of Ladakh was recently held.
- Motorists in high-altitude sectors like Ladakh, Kargil, Kaza and Keylong face the problem of freezing of diesel in their vehicles when winter temperatures drop to as low as -330
- Indian Oil has come up with an innovative solution to this problem by introducing a special winter-grade diesel with a low pour-point of -33o.
- This fuel does not lose its fluidity function even in extreme winter conditions.
- This will help reduce the hardships faced by the local people for transportation and mobility during the harsh winter months.
- It will further facilitate the local economy as well as tourism of the region.
6.North India’s 1st sugar mill which will Produce Ethanol Inaugurated
Why in News?
- North India’s first sugar mill which will produce ethanol direct from sugarcane was inaugurated in Pipraich area of Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh.
What is Ethanol?
- Ethanol is basically alcohol of 99%-plus purity, which can be used for blending with petrol.
- Produced mainly from molasses, a by-product of sugar manufacture.