Prelim Snippets 21-09-2019

1.Vaccine Hesitancy

Why in News?
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recently declared vaccine hesitancy one of the ten biggest threats to global health in 2019, along with air pollution and climate change.
  • It is defined by WHO as a “delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite availability of vaccination services
  • Vaccine hesitancy threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-preventable diseases. Measles, for example, has seen a 30% increase in cases globally in 2018.
  • Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways of avoiding disease – it currently prevents 2-3 million deaths a year, and a further 1.5 million could be avoided if global coverage of vaccinations improved.
  • Some of the reasons why people choose not to vaccinate are: Complacency, inconvenience in accessing vaccines, and lack of confidence are key reasons underlying hesitancy.

2.World Patient Safety Day

  • World Patient Safety Day was celebrated for the first time on 17 September 2019.
  • Events were held around the world to raise awareness of the need to establish patient safety as a global health priority.
  • The day brings stakeholders together in an effort to reduce the unintended harm caused by healthcare.
  • Objective: to raise global awareness about patient safety.
  • Theme: ‘Patient Safety: a global health priority’.
  • Slogan: “Speak up for patient safety!” “No one should be harmed in healthcare.”

3.Tatpar App

  • Delhi police has launched Tatpar App as a one-stop destination for access to over 50 citizen-centric services like theft e-FIR registration, motor vehicle theft e-FIR registration, payment of traffic filing a lost report, checking complaint status, reporting of missing or stolen mobile phones, applying for police clearance certificates, tenant/domestic help verification, searching for stolen vehicles, etc.
  • The newly-integrated one-touch mobile app brings together all the websites and mobile applications of the Delhi Police and over 50 services. These services can now be accessed with a single touch in the app.

4.Teaser Loans

Why in News?
  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is unlikely to allow the return of teaser home loans, following the introduction of the external benchmark-linked loan pricing.
  • Teaser loans are the loans which are offered at a fixed low rate of interest in the initial years and are subsequently adjusted to a higher floating rate for the rest of their tenure.
  • It is an unofficial term used to address such types of loans.

5.ERSS- Dial 112, ‘E-Beat Book’ System and ‘E-Saathi’ App

Why in news?
  • The Union Home Minister launched three citizen-centric services of the Chandigarh Police which are ERSS- Dial 112, ‘E-Beat Book’ System and ‘E-Saathi’ App, in Chandigarh.
5.1 ERSS:
  • ERSS stands for Emergency Response Support System.
  • ERSS is one of the key projects of the Union Ministry of Home Affairs under the Nirbhaya Fund.ERSS provides a single emergency number (112), and a computer-aided dispatch of field resources to the location of distress.
  • Citizens can send their emergency information through call, SMS, email and through the 112 India mobile app.
5.2 Dial 112:
  • Till now, there were more than 20 emergency helpline numbers, for various kinds of emergencies needing the help of rescue forces in the domains of fire, health, police, etc.
  • This was ineffective since the public would often get confused with the numbers and end up wasting time calling the wrong emergency service.
  • To avoid this, the Dial 112 is created, which is a single number for immediate assistance services from police (100), health (108), fire (101), and women (1090).
  • Initially, 16 states and Union Territories are planning to roll-out the service.
  • In the future, more emergency services would be covered in this initiative.
5.3 E-Beat Book:
  • It is a web and mobile-based application which will ease the collection, updation and analysis of information related to crime and criminals in real-time.
  • The E-Beat Book would be linked with the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS), which would help in real-time updation of crime/criminal data.
  • Every Beat Officer would be having an android phone to use the App.
5.4 ‘E-Saathi’ App:
  • This App is intended to help the general public, including senior citizens, to remain in touch with the police and also give suggestions to facilitate participative community policing.
  • The beat officer would be able to provide services like passport verification, tenant verification, servant verification, character certification, etc. at a click of a button through the App, without people needing to visit the police station.

6.Kerala’s Attapadi – First fully literate tribal Block

Why in News?
  • Attapadi in Palakkad is all set to become the first tribal block in the country to achieve total literacy.
  • Kerala state government has launched a special literacy programme named “State Literacy mission” to educate the tribal people.
  • As per UNESCO guidelines, total literacy can be declared if 90% or above of the population in a region become literate.

7.SIM Jacking -A New Cyber Security Threat

Why in News?
  • A U.K based organisation named “Adaptive Mobile Security has recently identified a new cyber threat named SIM-Jacking.
About SIM-Jacking:
  • This process involves of sending a spyware code to a mobile phone which then hacks the SIM card within it and then takes over the mobile phone.
  • This attack happens because there is a vulnerability in the Sim application tool-kit which comes pre-installed in the modern mobile phones.
  • This attack allows to get into anyone’s mobile phone and read messages, listen to conversation, track real time location etc.

8.A fourth of Indians Consider Dementia ‘Dangerous’

Why in News?
  • A report was recently released by Alzheimer’s Disease International (ADI), a London-based non-profit organisation which stated that a quarter of Indians considered those suffering from dementia to be “dangerous”.
  • This report made public on the eve of Alzheimer’s Day (21 September).
About Dementia:
  • Dementia is not the name of a specific disease. It is an overall term to describe decline in mental ability so much so that it interferes with the day to day life of a person.
  • Dementia is caused due to damage in brain cells which in turn makes it difficult for the brain cells to communicate with each other. This damage will result in the following symptoms:
    • Memory loss Inability to communicate and think normally.
    • Cannot retain focus and pay attention.
    • Changes in behaviour and feelings of a person.
    • Decline in reasoning and judgment.
    • Decline in visual perception.
  • Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia but it is not the only one. It accounts for 60-80% of dementia cases. As of now, scientists are still searching a cure for this disease.

9.Composition Tax

Why in News?
  • The GST Council, in its meeting recommended the relaxation in filing of annual returns for MSMEs for FY 2017-18 and FY 2018-19 as under waiver of the requirement of filing FORM GSTR-9A for Composition Taxpayers for the said tax periods.
About Composition Tax:
  • The composition scheme is an alternative method of tax levy under GST designed to simplify compliance and reduce compliance costs for small taxpayers.
  • The main feature of this scheme is that the business or person who has opted to pay tax under this scheme can pay tax at a flat percentage of turnover every quarter, instead of paying tax at normal rate every month.

10.Fateh Darwaza

Why in News?
  • Fateh Darwaza caught in legal vacuum.
About Fateh Darwaza:
  • Fateh Darwaza, literally meaning ‘the victory gate’, is the main gateway of the Golconda Fort, near the south-east corner.
  • Fateh Darwaza is of historical prominence, as Aurangzeb’s triumphant army marched through this gate after capturing the fort – hence the name.
  • Noted for its architectural marvel, a clap under the canopy of the darwaza can be clearly heard at far summit palace, which served as a warning note in times of danger.
  • Fateh Darwaza is one of the eight huge gateways leading to the Golconda Fort.
  • The other doorways are Macca Darwaza,Moti Darwaza, Jamali Darwaza, Banjara Darwaza, Naya Qila Darwaza, Patancheru Darwaza and Bahamani Darwaza.

11.CAMPA Fund

Why in News?
  • Centre allocates Rs 2,675 crore to Uttarakhand under CAMPA fund.
About CAMPA:
  • CAMPA stands for Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority.
  • It was a temporary mechanism setup after SC judgement of 2002.The SC in 2009 issued orders that there will be a Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) as National Advisory Council under the chairmanship of the Union Minister of Environment & Forests for monitoring, technical assistance and evaluation of compensatory afforestation activities.
  • Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) are meant to promote afforestation and regeneration activities as a way of compensating for forest land diverted to non-forest uses.
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