Prelim Snippets 29-07-2019
WORLD HEPATITIS DAY 2019
- Theme: “Invest in eliminating hepatitis”.
- The host country for World Hepatitis Day 2019 is Pakistan.
- Hepatitis is an Inflammation of the liver.
- The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer.
- Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water.
- Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of parenteral contact with infected body fluids.
- In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer.
- Transmission: Common modes of transmission for these viruses include receipt of contaminated blood or blood products, invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment.
- Hepatitis B transmission from mother to baby at birth, from family member to child, and also by sexual contact.
- Global: The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 3.3) calls for eliminating viral hepatitis by 2030.
- India: India has also included Hepatitis B vaccination under the expanded Universal Immunization Programme.
Context: Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) launches encyclopaedia to strengthen security services.
- The Central Industrial Security Force launched an online encyclopaedia — Securitypedia — which incorporates a wide gamut of security-related practices across the globe
- The CISF has established a technical lab at National Industrial Security Academy (NISA) in Hyderabad to maintain and update technical knowledge about the latest innovations in the field safety and security that can be used in places like airports and government offices.
- It has been developed as a repository of knowledge and contains extensive information on technical learning, CISF manuals, case studies, technical compendium, etc.
BANUO Z. JAMIR COMMISSION
Context: The Nagaland government constituted a commission to frame the modalities of creating the Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland
- The Commission would be headed by retired Chief Secretary Banuo Z. Jamir as chairman.
Recommendation of the Commission:
- Eligibility criteria to be an indigenous inhabitant
- Documents to be acceptable as proof for being an indigenous inhabitant
- Manner in which the exercise is to be carried out and
- Any other issue relating to implementation of the RIIN.
- The panel would submit its report within three months.
- The RIIN, a register of all the indigenous inhabitants of the State, is required to prevent issuance of indigenous inhabitant certificates to ineligible persons
- According to a June 29 government notification, the RIIN, will help identify the citizens who settled in Nagaland prior to December 1, 1963, the day it became a full-fledged State.
- The Nagaland government began the process of preparing the RIIN on July 10.
DEEP OCEAN MISSION
Context: The ‘Deep Ocean Mission (DOM)’ to be led by the Union Earth Sciences Ministry will commence from October 31
- The mission proposes to explore the deep ocean similar to the space exploration started by ISRO about 35 years ago
- A major thrust of the mission will be looking for metals and minerals.
- It will comprise an offshore desalination plant that will work with tidal energy and developing a submersible vehicle that can go to a depth of at least 6,000 metres with three people on board.
- India has been allotted a site of 75,000 sq. km. in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) by the UN International Sea Bed Authority for exploitation of polymetallic nodules (PMN).
- These are rocks scattered on the seabed containing iron, manganese, nickel and cobalt
- It has been estimated that 380 million metric tonnes of polymetallic nodules are available at the bottom of the seas in the Central Indian Ocean.
- Being able to lay hands on even 10% of that reserve can meet the energy requirement for the next 100 years.
- India’s Exclusive Economic Zone spreads over 2.2 million sq. km. and in the deep sea, lies “unexplored and unutilised”.
Context: WHO recommends use of innovative HIV drug- Dolutegravir
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recommended the use of the HIV drug dolutegravir (DTG) as the preferred first-line and second-line treatment for all populations, including pregnant women and those of childbearing potential.
- Dolutegravir (DTG), sold under the brand name Tivicay, is an antiretroviral medication used, together with other medication, to treat HIV/AIDS.
- It may also be used, as part of post exposure prophylaxis, to prevent HIV infection following potential exposure. It is taken by mouth
- Initial studies had highlighted a possible link between DTG and neural tube defects (birth defects of the brain and spinal cord that cause conditions such as spina bifida) in infants born to women using the drug at the time of conception
- DTG is a drug that is more effective, easier to take and has fewer side effects than alternative drugs that are currently used.
- In 2019, 82 low- and middle-income countries reported to be transitioning to DTG-based HIV treatment regimens. The new updated recommendations aim to help more countries improve their HIV policies.
Context: 1,050 passengers rescued from stranded train near Mumbai
- A coordinated operation of the NDRF, the Army and the Navy rescued over a thousand passengers stranded on the Mumbai-Kolhapur Mahalaxmi Express near Badlapur, following heavy overnight rains that inundated large swathes of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR).
- It was held up between Badlapur and Wangani railway station due to water logging on tracks as the Ulhas river near Badlapur breached its banks.
About Ulhas River:
- The Ulhas River is a west flowing river in Western India in the state of Maharashtra draining an area of 4,637 km2
- It is used to supply drinking water to the cities of Badlapur and Navi Mumbai, Kalyan Dombivali
7th ECONOMIC CENSUS
Context: Government has begun 7th Economic Census from Tripura, rest of the States and UTs to be covered soon.
What is Economic Census:
- Economic Census (EC) is the complete count of all establishments/units located within the geographical boundaries of the country.
- The establishment is a unit situated in a single location in which predominantly one kind of economic activity is carried out such that at least a part of the goods and/or services produced by the unit goes for sale (i.e. entire produce is not for sole consumption)
- Agriculture census is not covered in Economic census (Only Growing of agricultural crops and plantations should not be counted as establishments for the purpose of this Economic Census)
- 7th Economic Census is being conducted by the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation (MoSPI) along with Common Service Centres, CSC e-Governance Services India Limited, a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) as the implementing agency for 7th EC.
Context: Chinese private company reaches orbit for first time
- The Hyperbola 1 rocket lifted off from the Jiuquan space center in northwestern China’s Inner Mongolia region.
- A startup company named i-Space became the first Chinese private firm to achieve orbit with a successful launch of a light-class Hyperbola 1 booster.
- Hyperbola-1 is carrying the CAS-7B CubeSat (microsatellite).
- It is an amateur radio mission which is developed by the Beijing Institute of Technology.
- Hyperbola-1 is also carrying a satellite for Aerospace Science and Technology Space Engineering Development Co. Ltd.
About Hyperbola 1:
- It is around 68,000 pounds (31 metric tons) with three lower stages burning pre-packed solid propellants, and a liquid-fueled upper stage for a final orbital injection maneuver.
- This rocket is able to deliver up to 573 pounds (260 kilograms) of payload mass to a 310-mile-high (500-kilometer) sun-synchronous polar orbit.
Context: Ministry of mines organises a workshop on Effective utilization of Red Mud in association with the Jawaharlal Nehru Aluminium Research Development and Design Centre (JNARDDC) Nagpur in New Delhi
- In a step towards productive utilisation of bauxite residue, commonly known as the ‘Red Mud’, an interactive workshop called ‘Waste to Wealth’ was organized by Ministry of Mines
- Red Mud is a solid waste generated during the aluminium production process.
- Global generation of red mud is more than 150 million tons and there exists a global inventory of more than 3 billion tons.
- Red mud generation in India is around 9 million tons per year.
- This is an environmental concern due to presence of impurities such as caustic soda and others minerals.