Prelim Snippets 28-09-2019

1.National Film Archive of India (NFAI)

Why in News:
  • NFAI acquires rare footage of Mahatma Gandhi’s life and times.
About NFAI:
  • National Film Archive of India (NFAI) was set up in February, 1964 as a media unit of the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India with the primary objective of acquiring and preserving Indian cinematic heritage.
  • This includes preservation of film and non-film material including but not limited to celluloid, stills, glass slides, posters, lobby cards, scripts and song booklets.
  • It is a member of the International Federation of Film Archives.
  • Trace, Acquire and Preserve the National Cinematic Heritage as well as a representative collection of world cinema for posterity.
  • Classify and document data pertaining to films.
  • Undertake and encourage research on cinema.
  • Act as a center for the dissemination of film culture in the country.
  • Promote Indian cinema across the globe.
  • Acquire, preserve, restore and disseminate India’s socio-cultural heritage.
  • This heritage may be in the form of film and non-film content, including but not limited to celluloid films, still photographs, wall posters, song booklets, posters, lobby cards, documentaries and VHS tapes.


Why in News?
  • An advertisement by NHAI has mentioned that , from December 2019 all the tolled National Highways (NH) across the country will be dedicated as FASTag Lanes except one “hybrid” lane at each toll plaza.The “hybrid” lane will be used by users wishing to pay cash or by those falling under exempted category.
About FASTag
  • A FASTag is a reloadable tag that automatically deducts toll charges and allows a vehicle to pass through a toll gate without stopping for the payment. It uses radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to make cashless payments through a prepaid account linked to it.
  • The tag is fixed to the windscreen of a vehicle and an RFID antenna in the canopy of the toll gate scans the QR code and the tag identification number, following which the boom barrier lifts to allow a vehicle to pass through.
  • The tag, which is valid for five years, comes in seven different colours — violet, orange, yellow, green, pink, blue, black. Each colour is assigned to a particular category of vehicles.

3.Panchsheel- Principle of Peaceful Co-existence

Why in News?
  • Speaking at a public reception to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the Chinese envoy urged India to follow the principle of peaceful co-existence as devised in the Nehruvian era.
What is Panchsheel Pact or Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence?
  • Panchsheel Pact or Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence are a series of principles that have formed the basis of the relationship between India and China. The Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence are:
    • Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
    • Mutual non-aggression
    • Mutual non-interference
    • Equality and mutual benefit
    • Peaceful co-existence

4.Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

Why in News?
  • On Kashmir issue , Organisation of Islamic Cooperation tells India to rescind action on Article 370
About OIC:
  • The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is the second largest inter-governmental organization after the United Nations with a membership of 57 states spread over four continents.
  • The Organization is the collective voice of the Muslim world.
  • It endeavors to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world.
  • The Organization was established upon a decision of the historical summit which took place in Rabat, Kingdom of Morocco on 12th Rajab 1389 Hijra (25 September 1969) following the criminal arson of Al-Aqsa Mosque in occupied Jerusalem.

5.Bharat-22 ETF

Why in News?
  • Bharat-22 ETF fourth tranche on October 3
About ETF:
  • An ETF is called an exchange-traded fund since it’s traded on an exchange just like stocks. The price of an ETF’s shares will change throughout the trading day as the shares are bought and sold on the market. This is unlike mutual funds, which are not traded on an exchange, and trade only once per day after the markets close.
About Bharat-22:
  • The Government of India launched the BHARAT-22 Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) managed by ICICI Prudential Mutual Fund targeting an initial amount of about Rs.8,000 crore.
  • The strength of this ETF lies in the specially created Index S&P BSE BHARAT-22 INDEX. This Index is a unique blend of shares of key CPSEs,Public Sector Banks (PSBs) and also the Government owned shares in blue chip private companies like Larsen & Tubro (L&T), Axis Bank and ITC.
  • The shares of the Government companies represent 6 core sectors of the economy – Finance, Industry, Energy, Utilities, Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) and Basic Materials. This combination makes the Index broad-based and diversified.

6.Shanthi Swarup Bhatnagar Prize

Why in News?
  • CSIR announces the winners of Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar prize for 2019
About the Prize:
  • The Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology (SSB) is a science award in India given annually by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) for notable and outstanding research, applied or fundamental, in biology, chemistry, environmental science, engineering, mathematics, medicine and Physics.
  • The prize recognizes outstanding Indian work in science and technology.
  • It is the most coveted award in multidisciplinary science in India.
  • The award is named after the founder Director of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar. It was first awarded in 1958.
  • Any citizen of India engaged in research in any field of science and technology up to the age of 45 years is eligible for the prize


  • A new, curious mineral named goldschmidtite has been discovered inside a diamond unearthed from a mine in South Africa.
  • It is a new mineral from the Earth’s mantle, found inside a diamond in South Africa.
  • The mineral has been named goldschmidtite, after Victor Moritz Goldschmidt, the Norwegian scientist acknowledged as the founder of modern geochemistry. It has been described in the journal American Mineralogist.
  • Goldschmidtite has an unusual chemical signature for a mineral from Earth’s mantle.
  • While the mantle is dominated by elements such as magnesium and iron, goldschmidtite has high concentrations of niobium, potassium and the rare earth elements lanthanum and cerium.
  • University of Alberta, a student of which discovered it described it as dark green and opaque.

8.World Tourism Day, 2019

  • World Tourism Day was celebrated on September 27.
  • World Tourism Day is celebrated every year by the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) since 1980 on 27 September.
  • This date was chosen to be so because, on that day in 1970, the Statutes of the UNWTO were adopted.
  • The aim of the day is to raise awareness about the role of tourism and to focus on the fact that travelling has a major social, cultural, political and economic effect on all of our lives.
  • Theme for 2019- “Tourism and Jobs — A Better Future For All”.
  • Every year, the day is hosted by a certain country.This year, for the first time, India hosted World Tourism Day in New Delhi.

9.INS Nilgiri

Why in News?
  • Raksha Mantri Shri Rajnath Singh launches Navy’s first new stealth frigate, INS ‘Nilgiri’
  • INS ‘Nilgiri’ is the first of the Indian Navy’s seven new stealth frigates.
  • INS Nilgiri is the first ship of Project17A. Project 17A frigates is a design derivative of the Shivalik class stealth frigates with much more advanced stealth features and indigenous weapons and sensors.
  • These frigates are being built using integrated construction methodology.The P17A frigates incorporate new design concepts for improved survivability, sea keeping, stealth and ship manoeuvrability.
  • These ships have been designed indigenously by the Indian Navy’s Directorate of Naval Design at Mazagon Dock, Mumbai.

10.National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

Why in news?
  • The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) celebrated its 15th Formation Day.
  • On the occasion, the guidelines on Disability-Inclusive Disaster Risk Reduction were launched.
  • These guidelines strive to make risk reduction initiatives more inclusive.
  • The theme for the 15th Formation Day was Fire Safety.
  • The NDMA was founded in 2005 by the Government of India which enacted the Disaster Management Act that envisaged the creation of the organisation.
  • It is an agency of the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • The NDMA’s chief purpose is to coordinate response to natural or man-made disasters and for capacity-building in disaster resiliency and crisis response.
  • It is the apex body for disaster management in the country.
  • It lays down policies for disaster management, sets up guidelines that are to be followed by the state authorities, coordinates the enforcement and implementation of the national disaster plans, and takes measures for the prevention of disasters, or the mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with threatening disaster situations or disasters.


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