PRELIM SNIPPETS – February 10th 2022
1. Falkland Islands
Why in News?
- Britain has recently rejected a statement from China that affirmed it’s support for Argentina’s claim to the Falkland Islands.
- China and Argentina issued a joint statement that said China “reaffirms its support for Argentina’s demand for the full exercise of sovereignty over the Malvinas Islands (Falkland Islands),” using the Argentine name for the territory.
- Falkland Islands, also called Malvinas Islands or Spanish Islas Malvinas, internally self-governing overseas territory of the United Kingdom in the South Atlantic Ocean.
- It lies about 300 miles northeast of the southern tip of South America and a similar distance east of the Strait of Magellan.
- The capital and major town is Stanley, on East Falkland, there are also several scattered small settlements as well as a Royal Air Force base that is located at Mount Pleasant.
- The two main Islands, East Falkland and West Falkland, and about 200 smaller islands. The government of the Falkland Islands also administers the British overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, including the Shag and Clerke rocks.
- Argentina based its claim to the Falklands based on an official document of 1493 modified by the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), by which Spain and Portugal had divided the New World between themselves; on succession from Spain; on the islands’ proximity to South America, and on the need to end a colonial situation.
- Britain based its claim on its “open, continuous, effective possession, occupation, and administration” of the islands since 1833 and its determination to apply to the Falklanders the principle of self-determination as recognized in the United Nations Charter.
- Britain asserted that, far from ending a colonial situation, Argentine rule and control of the lives of the Falklanders against their wishes would in fact create one.
2. Marine Heatwaves
Why in News?
- Recently, marine heatwaves the ones that form on oceans have been on the rise in the waters around India.
- Emerging studies have reported their occurrence and impacts in the global oceans, but are little understood in the tropical Indian Ocean.
- Also, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), the sea surface temperature over the Indian ocean is likely to increase by 1 to 2 °C when there is 1.5°C to 2°C global warming
- The Western Indian Ocean region experienced the largest increase in marine heatwaves at a rate of about 1.5 events per decade, followed by the north Bay of Bengal at a rate of 0.5 events per decade.
- The marine heatwaves In the Western Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal increased drying conditions over the central Indian subcontinent.
- Correspondingly, there is a significant increase in the rainfall over south peninsular India in response to the heatwaves in the north Bay of Bengal.
- From 1982 to 2018, the Western Indian Ocean had a total of 66 events, while the Bay of Bengal had 94 Events.
- These changes are in response to the modulation of the monsoon winds by the heatwaves.
- This is the first time that a study has demonstrated a close link between marine heatwaves and Atmospheric Circulation and Rainfall.
3. Section 498A IPC
Why in News?
- Recently, The Supreme Court in a judgement highlighted the growing misuse of Section 498A IPC, with friction rising in marriages.
- The Incorporation of section 498A was aimed at preventing cruelty committed upon a woman by her husband and her in-laws by facilitating Rapid State Intervention.
- The court held that there Is an increased tendency to employ provisions such as Section 498A IPC as instruments to settle personal scores against the husband and his relatives.
- Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code 1860 was passed by the Indian Parliament in 1983.
- The section of 498A of the Indian Penal Code is a criminal law.
- It is defined that if the husband or the relative of the husband of a woman, subjected such woman towards cruelty would be punished with imprisonment for a term which might extend to 3 years and may also be liable for fine.
- Section 498 A of Indian Penal Code is one of the greatest rescues for Violence against Woman (VAW), which is a reflection of the pathetic reality of the domestic violence occurring within the four walls of a house.
- With the rise in the rate of education, financial security, and modernization, the more independent and the radical Feminists have made Section 498A of IPC as a weapon in their hands than a shield.
- Due to this, many Helpless Husbands and their relatives have become the victims of the vengeful daughters-in-law of their house.
- These days in many cases where Section 498A is invoked, they turn out to be false cases as they turn out to be mere blackmail attempts by the wife (or her close relatives) when troubled with a stressed marriage.
- Due to this, in most cases the Section 498A complaint is generally followed by the demand of a huge amount of money to settle the case outside the court.
- The court held specifically that there is misuse and exploitation of the provisions to such an extent that it was hitting on the basis that is the foundation of marriage itself.
- This has ultimately proved to be not a good sign for the health of society for the public at large.
- Women have begun misusing Section 498 of IPC as this law is a tool for their vengeance or to get out of wedlock.
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