PRELIM SNIPPETS – February 18th 2022
Why in News?
- The Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) has recently launched a ‘Darkathon’ for cyber experts to find effective solutions to unravel the anonymity of markets in the dark web.
- The role of NCB as the nodal agency on the matter of drug law enforcement in India has gained prominence in recent times.
- The competitors will have to provide a “solution” based on crawling of darkweb to identify and catalog darknet markets selling drugs with a mechanism to automatically add new markets and drop inactive ones, identify drug traffickers based in India and the drugs on sale and digital footprinting of active drug traffickers.
- The number of drug seizures from parcel or courier consignments increased by almost 250% in India after the outbreak of the pandemic and a good number of them are linked to drug trafficking through darknet markets
- The first layer is public, consisting of sites that one uses frequently such as Facebook, Twitter, Amazon and LinkedIn. This layer makes up only 4% of the entire internet.
- The second layer, the deep web, is a network where data is stored in inaccessible databases (i.e. cannot be accessed through traditional search engines like Google). It is used to provide access to a specific group of people.
- The data Is generally sensitive and private (government private data, bank data, cloud data etc), so kept out of reach.
- The third layer is the darknet which is also known as a part of the ‘Deep Web’. It is a network built over the internet which is encrypted.
- It Is basically a layer of the Internet accessible only by using special software like TOR (The Onion Router), or I2P, which stands for Invisible Internet Project.
- Anything present on the dark web will not be pulled up in internet searches, thereby offering a high degree of anonymity.
2. Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC)
Why in the News?
- India has recently lashed out at the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC) for being “communal minded” amid the Karnataka hijab row.
What is the recent Controversy Between OIC & India?
- OIC Statement: The OIC has called on the UN Human Rights Council to take “necessary measures” on the issue of Muslim girl students being told not to wear the hijab in Karnataka schools.
- The OIC also urged India to “ensure the safety, security and well being of the Muslim community while protecting their way of life”.
- India’s Response: India held that it is a democracy, and issues within the country are resolved in accordance with our Constitutional framework and mechanism, as well as democratic ethos and polity.
- Further, India criticised OIC for being “communal minded” and “hijacked by vested interests” – a thinly veiled reference to Pakistan.
- The OIC Is the second largest intergovernmental organisation after the United Nations with a membership of 57 states.
- It is the collective voice of the Muslim world.
- It endeavors to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world.
- The Organisation of the Islamic Conference was established by the First Islamic Summit Conference held in Morocco in September 1969, to marshal the Islamic world after an act of arson at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jersualem by a 28-year-old Australian in 1969.
- It’s headquarters is at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
- India stayed away because of a multiplicity of reasons: It did not want to join an organisation founded on religion.
- There was the risk that improving bilateral relations with individual member states would come under pressure in a grouping, especially on issues such as Kashmir.
3. AUKUS Alliance
Why in News?
- China has equated the India, U.S., Australia, Japan Quad grouping with the AUKUS (Australia, U.K., U.S.) defence pact, calling both “exclusive cliques” part of the Biden administration’s “ill-intentioned” Indo-Pacific strategy.
- It said, this ‘strategy’ resurrect” the Cold War mentality and will only bring division and turbulence to the Asia-Pacific.
- The UK, US and Australia, in 2021, announced a historic security pact in the Asia-Pacific, in what’s seen as an effort to counter China. It is called the AUKUS pact and AUKUS alliance.
- Under the AUKUS alliance, the three nations have agreed to enhance the development of joint capabilities and technology sharing, foster deeper integration of security and defence-related science, technology, industrial bases and supply chains.
- Under the first major initiative of AUKUS, Australia would build a fleet of nuclear-powered submarines with the help of the US and the UK, a capability aimed at promoting stability in the Indo-Pacific region.
- The new partnership was announced in a joint virtual press conference. And while China was not mentioned directly, the three leaders referred repeatedly to regional security concerns which they said had “grown significantly”.
- In recent years, Beijing has been accused of raising tensions in disputed territories such as the South China Sea.
- Western nations have been wary of China’s infrastructure investment on Pacific islands, and have also criticised China’s trade sanctions against countries like Australia.
4. World Sustainable Development Summit:
Why in News?
- 21st edition of the event was recently inaugurated recently. It is being held in virtual format.
- Theme: Towards a Resilient Planet: Ensuring a Sustainable and Equitable Future.
- It is the annual flagship event of The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).
- It is the sole Summit on global issues taking place in the developing world.
- It provides a platform for global leaders and practitioners to discuss and deliberate over climatic issues of universal importance.
- It strives to provide long-term solutions for the benefit of the global community by assembling the world’s most enlightened leaders and thinkers on a single platform.
- It is continuing the legacy of Delhi Sustainable Development Summit (DSDS) which was initiated in 2001 with the aim of making ‘sustainable development’ a globally shared goal.
- Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’.
- This most widely accepted definition of Sustainable Development was given by the Brundtland Commission in its report Our Common Future (1987).
- Sustainable development (SD) calls for concerted efforts towards building an inclusive, sustainable and resilient future for people and planet.
- Three core elements of sustainable development are Economic growth, social inclusion and environmental protection. It is crucial to Harmonize Them.
//php comments_template(); ?>