PRELIM SNIPPETS – January 20th 2022

1.  Great Resignation

Why in News?

  • Recently, large numbers of people are embracing the credo of “antiwork”, and walking out of their jobs, especially in the US and European countries.


  • A record 4.3 million people resigned in August 2021, up 2,42,000 from July, according to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS).
  • The American psychologist Anthony Klotz has called it the “Great Resignation” — a call to remap priorities in the work-life equation.
  • While those opting out of work include, prominently, employees in the retail and hospitality sectors, many were willing to switch jobs or to re-evaluate their options.
  • Many countries in Central and Eastern Europe, have recorded a fall in the skilled labour force.
  • However, this could be due to stronger social safety nets.
  • Living through and surviving pandemic lockdowns nudged many to see “work-free” living as a viable option.
  • Grievances about low pay, unrealistic deadlines and bad bosses bubbled up from subconscious depths to feed the impulse.
  • This also means that these workers have market values beyond their existing employers.
  • They are relying on their experience and contacts to bag better job opportunities or choose start-ups.
  • There is a general apprehension that not enough capital allocation has been made in capacity building.

2. 5th Generation Mobile Network

Why in News?

  • The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has recently warned that the new 5G technology could interfere with sensitive navigation equipment such as altimeters, which could lead to “Catastrophic Disruptions.”
  • Airlines across the world, including India, are adjusting their scheduled flights to the US due to the rollout of 5G by telecom companies near American airports.


  • The higher the frequency in the spectrum, the faster the service. So in order to get full value from 5G, operators want to operate at higher frequencies.
  • Some of the C band (a radio frequency band between 3.7 and 4.2 GHz) spectrum auctioned had been used for satellite radio but the transition to 5G means there will be much more Traffic.
  • The new C band 5G service could render a significant number of aircraft unusable, causing chaos for US flights and potentially stranding tens of thousands of Americans overseas.
  • The United States auctioned mid-range 5G bandwidth to mobile phone companies in early 2021 in the C band, for about USD 80 billion.
  • FAA warned that the functioning of Altimeters, which measure how far above the ground an aeroplane is travelling, operating in the 4.2-4.4 GHz range which sits too close to the frequency of C range, may get hampered.
  • In addition to altitude, altimeter readouts are also used to facilitate automated landings and to help detect dangerous currents called wind shear.
  • Companies have argued that C band 5G has been deployed in about 40 other countries without aviation interference issues. They have agreed to buffer zones around 50 airports in the United States, similar to those used in France, for six months to reduce interference risks.
  • In the short-term, Companies agreed to temporarily defer turning on some wireless towers near key airports to avert a significant disruption to US flights.
  • In the Longer-term, the FAA needs to clear and allow the vast majority of the US commercial aeroplane fleet to perform low-visibility landings at many airports where 5G C-band will be deployed. This means certifying altimeters to operate near 5G base stations.

3. World Employment and Social Outlook – Trends (WESO Trends) 2022.

Why in News?

  • The International Labour Organisation (ILO) has recently released a report titled World Employment and Social Outlook – Trends (WESO Trends) 2022.
  • The Outlook remains fragile because the future path of the pandemic remains uncertain.
  • The WESO Trends includes comprehensive labour market projections for 2022 and 2023. It gives assessments of how labour market recovery has unfolded worldwide, reflecting Different National Approaches to pandemic recovery and analysing the effects on different Groups of workers and economic sectors.


  • Global unemployment is expected to remain above pre-Covid-19 levels until at least 2023.
  • The 2022 level is estimated at 207 million, compared to 186 million in 2019.
  • In 2022, it will be almost 2% below their pre-pandemic level — that is equivalent to the loss of 52 million full-time jobs. This deficit is twice as large as the ILO’s forecast in 2021.
  • It is estimated that in 2022 around 40 million people will no longer be participating in the global labour force.
  • The impact has been particularly serious for developing nations that experienced higher levels of inequality, more divergent working conditions and weaker social protection systems even before the pandemic.
  • Many low and middle-income countries have low access to vaccines and limited scope to expand government budgets to address the crisis.
  • The report warns of stark differences in the impact that the crisis is having across groups of workers and countries – deepening inequalities within and among nations – while weakening the economic, financial and social fabric of almost every State, regardless of development status.
  • The damage is likely to require years to repair, with potential long-term consequences for labour forces, household incomes, and social and possibly political cohesion.
  • Some sectors, such as travel and tourism have been particularly hard hit, while other sectors such as those related to information technology have thrived.
  • Women have been worse hit by the labour market crisis than men and this is likely to continue.The closing of education and training institutions will have long-term implications for young people, particularly those without internet access.
  • There can be no real recovery from this pandemic without a broad-based labour market Recovery.
  • Sustainable recovery is possible, but it must be based on the principles of decent work, including health and safety, equity, social protection, and social dialogue.
  • The new labour market forecast can be vital for policy planning for a country like India, where most of the work is informal, to prevent further employment losses and reductions in Working Hours.

4. Preventing Genocide

Why in News?

  • Incendiary speeches at a religious assembly include calls for the genocide of Muslims in India and can be seen as part of an ongoing pattern of Targeting Minorities.

Background of the Convention against Genocide:

  • India’s role: India has signed and ratified the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948.
  • In 1946, Cuba, India and Panama co-sponsored General Assembly Resolution 96(I), which affirmed genocide as a ‘crime under international law’.
  • As a result of this resolution, a convention on the prohibition of genocide was drafted, which was passed by the General Assembly in 1948 and came into effect in 1951, with more than 150 states party to the convention presently.
  • Legal obligation: Legal obligations on states that are party to the convention include:
  • The obligation not to commit genocide,
  • To prevent genocide, and to punish genocide(Article I),
  • To enact legislation to give effect to the provisions of the convention (Article V);
  • To provide for effective penalties for those found guilty of criminal conduct (Article V); and
  • The obligation to try those charged with genocide in a competent tribunal (Article VI).

No Legislation Enacted by India:

  • Since signing the Genocide Convention and ratifying it, to date India has not enacted any Legislation in accordance with Article VI of the Genocide Convention.
  • At the outset, India is in violation of its international obligation to criminalise genocide within its domestic law per Articles V, VI and VII, and to take all means to ensure the Prevention of genocide.
  • Indian domestic law shows that there are no comparable provisions for the prosecution of any Mass Crimes, least of all genocide.
  • Indian Penal Code provisions relating to rioting, unlawful assembly and ‘promoting Enmity between different groups’ do not embody the basic elements of the crime of Genocide, which is against a collectivity or a group, with the specific intent to cause its Destruction.
  • These also do not pertain to another key aspect of the Genocide Convention – that of prevention, and creating the conditions in which such hate speech and other associated acts are not allowed to flourish.

Significance of the Gambia’s proceedings before the ICJ against Myanmar:

  • The Gambia has initiated proceedings before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) against Myanmar on the basis of the Convention.
  • The ICJ, relying on a previous case of Belgium v. Senegal, stated, “It follows that any State party to the Genocide Convention, and not only a specially affected State, may invoke the responsibility of another State party with a view to ascertaining the alleged failure to comply with its obligations erga omnes partes, and to bring that failure to an end.”

5. World Economic Forum’s Davos Agenda ’22

Why in News?

  • PM Modi has made a special address ahead of the theme-setting World Economic Forum (WEF) Agenda on the ‘State of the World’ at Davos.

World Economic Forum (WEF):

  • WEF is an international non-governmental and lobbying organisation based in Cologny, canton of Geneva, Switzerland.
  • It was founded on 24 January 1971 by German engineer and economist Klaus Schwab.
  • The foundation, which is mostly funded by its 1,000 member companies – typically Global Enterprises with more than five billion US dollars in turnover – as well as public subsidies.
  • It aims at improving the state of the world by engaging business, political, academic, and other leaders of society to shape global, regional, and industry agendas.

Major Reports Released:

  • Engaging Tomorrow Consumer Report
  • Inclusive growth & Development Report
  • Environmental Performance Index
  • Global Competitive Index
  • Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report
  • Global Gender Gap Report
  • Global Information Technology Report
  • Human Capital Report
  • Inclusive growth & Development Report
  • Global Risk Report
  • Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report by WEF

Important Agenda: Davos meeting:

  • The WEF is mostly known for its annual meeting at the end of January in Davos, a mountain resort in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland.
  • The meeting brings together some 3,000 paying members and selected participants – among which are investors, business leaders, political leaders, economists, celebrities and journalists.

Why is WEF Important?

  • Common platform: The WEF summit brings together the who’s-who of the political and corporate world, including heads of state, policymakers, top executives, industrialists, media Personalities, and Technocrats.
  • Influence Global Decision-making: Deliberations at the WEF influence public sector and corporate decision-making.
  • Discusses Global Challenges: It especially emphasizes on the issues of global importance such as poverty, social challenges, climate change, and global economic recovery.
  • Brings in all Stakeholders: The heady mix of economic, corporate, and political leadership provides an ideal opportunity for finding solutions to global challenges that may emerge from time to time.

What are the Main Initiatives?

  • Agenda 2022 will see the launch of other WEF initiatives meant for:
  • Accelerating the mission to net-zero emissions
  • Economic opportunity of nature-positive solutions
  • Cyber resilience

Criticisms of WEF:

  • WEF has been criticized for being more of a networking hub than a nebula  of  intellect or a Forum to find effective solutions to global issues.
  • It is also criticized for the lack of representation from varied sections of the civil society and for falling short of delivering effective solutions.

Way Forward:

  • WEF sees large-scale Participation of top industry, business leaders, civil society, and International Organizations every year.
  • This collaboration is necessary for addressing global concerns such as climate change and Pandemic Management.
  • It is one of such few platform, that provides an opportunity for collaboration through Comprehensive Dialogue.
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