Prelim Snippet 02-07-2019


  • Origin: They are an Indigenous Ethnic Group of Meghalaya in north-eastern India, with a significant population in the bordering state of Assam, and in certain parts of Bangladesh.
  • Culture: The Main Difference of Khasis with other tribes is that the descendants are recognized from Mother and not from Father.
    According to Khasi law and tradition the Mother Inherits the Children and Property but not the father.
  • Occupation: JHUM (shifting cultivation) is being practiced. They have a peasant-based Economy
  • Languages: Khasi is a language spoken by Khasis, which is an Austro- Asiatic language. It is a part of the Mon- Khmer group of languages.
  • Festivals: The major festival celebrated by Khasis is Nongkrem. It is a five-day religious festival which falls in the month of November every year.


Blue Flag Standards:
  • The Blue Flag Beach Standards were established by Copenhagen – based Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) in 1985 in France
  • The Blue Flag is an Environmental award for Beaches, Sustainable boating tourism Operators and Marinas.
  • Only Local Authorities or Private Beach Operators can apply for a Blue Flag for Beaches
  • The Criteria for Blue Flag beaches cover four Main Area:
  • Water Quality
  • Environmental Management
  • Environmental Education and
  • Safety
In India:
  • The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change had started a pilot project under a Unified Coastal Areas Management Programme to develop the Indian beaches according to the Blue Flag standards in December 2017.
  • Chandrabhaga Beach of Odisha’s Konark coast was the first to complete the tag certification process and will be the First in Asia to get the Blue Flag certification.


Context: Scientists identified 33 known Tumour Suppressing Genes in humpback whales that showed evidence of advantageous changes.

About Humpback Whales:
  • It is a species of baleen whale. One of the larger rorqual species, adult’s range in length from 12–16 m
  • The humpback has a distinctive body shape, with long pectoral fins and a knobbly head. It is known for breaching and other distinctive surface behaviors
  • They feed in polar waters, and migrate to tropical or subtropical waters to breed and give birth, fasting and living off their fat reserves.
  • Their diet consists mostly of krill and small fish
  • Once hunted to the brink of extinction, its population fell by an estimated 90% before a 1966 moratorium
  • In August 2008, the IUCN changed humpback’s status from Vulnerable to Least Concern.


  • It is an infection of the brain caused by the Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV).
  • While most infections result in little or no symptoms, occasional inflammation of the brain occurs.
  • In these cases, symptoms may include headache, vomiting, fever, confusion, and seizures
  • JEV is generally spread by Mosquitoes, specifically those of the Culex type.
    Pigs and wild birds serve as a reservoir for the virus.
About Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV):
  • It is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow fever and West Nile viruses, and is spread by mosquitoes.
  • Treatment: There is no Antiviral Treatment for Patients with JE. Treatment is supportive to relieve symptoms and stabilize the patient.
  • Prevention and Control: Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent JE. WHO recommends that JE vaccination be integrated into national immunization schedules in all areas where JE disease is recognized as a Public Health Issue.
  • Dastak Campaign: UP government is planning to launch a campaign named ‘Dastak’ to create awareness and beat encephalitis in the state.
  • This campaign is part of a comprehensive Social and Behavior Change Communication (SBCC) strategy embraced by state government.


  • Context: It is running successfully to motivate children to learn Science, Maths and Technology through observation and Experimentation
About Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan:
  • The RAA is a convergent framework across School Education and Higher Education to motivate children of the age group from 6-18 years in learning Science, Mathematics and Technology through observation, experimentation, inference drawing, model building, etc. both through inside and outside classroom activities and processes.
  • It seeks to create curiosity, excitement and spirit of innovation and exploration amongst school children by encouraging higher education institutions to become Mentoring Institutions
  • It assists secondary and elementary schools in the study of Science and Mathematics.


  • Context: HRD Ministry launches innovation cell for higher education institutions
  • It aims to brainstorm new ideas about promoting innovation in all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across the Country.
  • Objective: The main objective behind setting up of the cell is to advance research in order to strengthen innovation efforts, leading to the creation of a new India.
  • Its Primary Mandate is to encourage, inspire and nurture young students by exposing them to new ideas and processes resulting in innovative activities in their formative years fostered through network of innovation clubs in HEIs.


  • Context: A unique initiative for taking farmers, artisans and other members of cooperatives directly to the global trade arena
  • It aims at Doubling the Agriculture Export and integrating Indian farmers and agriculture products with global value chains.
  • The First Ever India International Cooperatives Trade Fair (IICTF) is going to be held at Pragati Maidan, New Delhi from 11th till 13th October, 2019
  • It is aimed at promoting cooperative to cooperative trade within India and abroad leading to enhanced rural and farm prosperity
  • It is a vibrant platform to network and collaborate with cooperatives from all across the world.


  • It is a sports university in Manipur, India. The University will:
  • 1. Undertake Research on physical education,
  • 2. Strengthen Sports Training Programmes, and
  • 3. Collaborate Internationally in the field of physical education, among others.
Functions of the University:
  • Key powers and functions of the University include:
  • 1. Prescribing courses of study and conducting Training Programmes,
  • 2. Granting Degrees, Diplomas, and Certificates,
  • 3. Providing Facilities through a distance education system, and
  • 4. Conferring Autonomous status on a College or an Institution.
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