Prelims level : Art and Culture AC2 Architecture and Art forms Mains level : Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from Ancient to Modern Times.
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ASI carries out restoration of Mughal •era parts of Red Fort.


  • Red fort fuses architectural styles of the Timurids and the Persians.
  • Red Fort has many structures that serve as fine examples of Islamic architectural style and Mughal architecture,
  • Built By: Shah Jahan
  • Architect: Ustad Ahmad Lahauri Architectural styles: Mughal, Indo-Islamic Current Status: UNESCO World Heritage Site On the Banks of River Yamuna,
  • The Red Fort is known for its gardens and a water channel called The Stream of Paradise.

Salient Features of Indo-Islamic Architecture:

  • Islamic Architecture is characterised by a few Visible Symbols.
  • One is the arch, which frames the space;
  • second symbol is the dome, which looms over the skyscape;
  • third is the Minaret, which pierces the skies. Minarets were Actually Symbols in the Middle of Deserts
  • Muslims forbidden to replicate living forms on any surface, developed their religious art and architecture consisting of the arts of arabesque, geometrical patterns and calligraphy on plaster and stone.

Indian Indo Islamic Architecture:

  • The Indo-Islamic architecture inculcates the elements of Saracenic, Turkish and Arab architecture
  • The first new element added in the Indian architecture was the use of shapes instead of natural forms. This apart, use of calligraphy as inscriptional art was also a new element added to by Muslims
  • Inlay decoration and use of coloured marble, painted plaster and brilliantly glazed tiles.

Indo-Islamic architecture is conventionally categorised into the following four Categories:

  • Imperial Style (Delhi Sultanate)
  • Provincial Style (Mandu, Gujarat, Bengal, and Jaunpur)
  • Mughal Style (Delhi, Agra, and Lahore)
  • Deccani Style (Bijapur, Golconda).

The Building Material:

  • One thing is very common in these buildings that the walls are extremely thick and largely constructed of Rubble masonary, which was easily available.
  • These walls were then cased over with limestone plaster or dressed stone.
  • A variety of stones were used such as Quartzite, Sandstone, Buff, Marble, etc. In some cases, the Polychrome Tiles were used to finish the walls.
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