Prelims level : Constitutional Bodies, Regulatory Bodies Mains level : GS-II Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein
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Why in News?

  • The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has withdrawn the security cover of DMK president M.K Stalin and Tamil Nadu Deputy Chief Minister O. Panneerselvam recently.


  • In India, security details are provided to some high-risk individuals by the police and state government.
  • Depending on the threat perception to the person, the category is divided into four tiers: Z+ (highest level), Z, Y and X.
  • Individuals under this security blanket include the President, Vice-President, Prime-Minister, Supreme Court and High Court Judges, Service Chiefs of Indian Armed Forces, Governors of State, Chief Ministers and Cabinet Ministers.

SPG Category:

  • Strength of security detail is classified (only provided to the Prime Minister of India.)
  • The SPG (Special Protection Group), NSG (National Security Guards), ITBP (Indo-Tibetan Border Police) and CRPF (Central Reserve Police Force) are the agencies responsible for providing securities to VVIPs, VIPs, politicians, high-profile celebrities and sportspersons.
  • The NSG is used extensively to guard VIPs and VVIPs, especially those in the Z+ category.
  • Many NSG personnel are seconded to the Special Protection Group (SPG) which guards the Prime Minister.
  • Recently, the Centre withdrew the Special Protection Group cover of Congress leaders Sonia Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi and Priyanka Gandhi and replaced it with Z-plus cover of CRPF.

 Z+ Category:

  • It has a security cover of 55 personnel [Including 10+ NSG Commando] + [Police Personnel]
  • The Z+ level of security is provided by National Security Guard commandos.

Z Category:

  • It has a security cover of 22 personnel [Including 4 or 5 NSG Commando] + [Police Personnel]
  • The ‘Z’ category entails security cover by the Delhi police or the ITBP or CRPF personnel and one escort car.

Y category:

  • It has a security cover of 11 personnel [Including 1 or 2 Commando] + [Police Personnel]
  • The ‘Y’ category encompasses two personal security officers (PSOs) and one PSO from the ‘X’ category.

X Category:

  • It has a security cover of 2 personnel [No Commando, Only Armed Police Personnel]

How Security is Entitled?

  • If there is any threat perception to VIPs then it is the responsibility of the government to provide security.
  • A person facing a threat files an application at the police station nearest to his/her residence.
  • Then, the case is forwarded to the intelligence agencies to find out the threat posed to the person.
  • When the threat is confirmed, a committee comprising the Home Secretary, Director General and the Chief Secretary in the state decides which category of security is to be given to that person.
  • After this, the details of the person are also given to the Union Home Ministry for formal Approval.
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