GS – III Security challenges and their management in border areas

  • Air defence system integrates a multifunction radar, autonomous detection and targeting systems, anti-aircraft missile systems, launchers, and command and control centre. It is capable of firing three types of missiles to create a layered defence.
  • The system can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and ballistic and cruise missiles within the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30km.
  • The system can simultaneously engage 36 targets.
  • The S-400 is two-times more effective than previous Russian air defence systems and can be deployed within five minutes.
  • It can also be integrated into the existing and future air defence units of the Air Force, Army, and the Navy.

S-400 Triumph Missiles:

  • The S-400 air defence missile system uses four new missile types in addition to the missiles of the S-300PMU system.
  • The first missile inducted for the system was the 48N6DM (48N6E3). It is an improved variant of the 48N6M with powerful propulsion system.
  • The missile can destroy airborne targets within the range of 250km.
  • The 40N6 missile of the S-400 has a claimed range of 400km and uses active radar homing to intercept air targets at great distances. It can be launched against AWACS, J-STARS, EA-6B support jammers and other high-value targets.
  • The S-400 Triumph also launches 9M96E and 9M96E2 medium range ground-to-air missiles.
  • Designed for direct impact, the missiles can strike fast moving targets such as fighter aircraft with a high hit probability.
  • The maximum range of the 9M96 missile is 120km.


  • “The S-400 is two-times more effective than previous Russian air defence systems and can be deployed within five minutes.”
  • The fire control and target tracking radar of the S-400 is the 92N6E (NATO Codename: Gravestone). The radar is based on the MZKT-7930 8×8 vehicle. The 96L6 Cheese Board 3D surveillance and tracking radar is optionally carried by the same vehicle when the S-400 battery is deployed autonomously.
  • The 91N6E Big Bird acquisition and battle management radar of the S-400 is based on the 8×8 trailer. The radar can detect and track aircraft, rotorcraft, cruise missiles, guided missiles, drones and ballistic rockets within the distance of 600km. It can simultaneously track up to 300 targets.

Launch vehicle:

  • The SP85TE2 launchers are based on the BAZ-64022 6×6 tractor truck or MAZ-79100 series Transporter-Erector-Launcher (TEL) vehicle. The TEL vehicle can carry up to four launch tubes holding a mix of missiles.
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