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Prelims Syllabus : Mains Syllabus :

Perovskites-coated cells are light, Flexible and Inexpensive:

  • Perovskites — a new generation of cheaper solar cells — that makes it possible to produce solar panels under lower temperatures, thus sharply reducing costs.
  • Perovskite solar cells have the potential to address the world energy poverty
  • Solar panels coated with the mineral are light, flexible, efficient, inexpensive and come in varying hues and degrees of transparency.
  • They can easily be fixed to almost any surface — be it laptop, car, drone, spacecraft or building — to produce electricity, including in the shade or indoors.
  • Though the excitement is new, perovskite has been known to science since at least the 1830s, when it was first identified by German mineralogist Gustav Rose while prospecting in the Ural Mountains and named after Russian mineralogist Lev Perovski.

‘Bull’s Eye’:

  • In the following decades, synthesising the atomic structure of perovskite became easier. But it was not until 2009 that Japanese researcher Tsutomu Miyasaka discovered that perovskites can be used to form photovoltaic solar cells.
  • Initially the process was complicated and required ultra-high temperatures, so only materials that could withstand extreme heat — like glass — could be coated with perovskite cells.

Self-sufficient Buildings:

  • The Swedish construction group Skanska is testing the cutting-edge panels on the facade of one of its buildings in Warsaw. It also inked a licencing partnership with Saule for exclusive right to incorporate the technology in its projects in Europe, the U.S. and Canada.
  • “More or less transparent, the panels also respond to design requirements. Thanks to their flexibility and varying tints, there’s no need to add any extra architectural elements.

India’s Solar Policy:

  • About 70% of India’s electricity generation capacity is from fossil fuels. India is largely dependent on fossil fuel imports to meet its energy demands.
    By 2030, India’s dependence on energy imports is expected to exceed 53% of the country’s total energy consumption. Greater import dependence is a a threat to India’s energy security as it introduces global market volatility into the mix.

Solar Energy:

  • As per World Energy Outlook Report 2015, India has substantial solar potential around 750 gigawatts (GW) (based on the assumption that 3% of wasteland in each state can be used for solar power projects, plus an assessment of the potential for rooftop solar). This represents almost three times India’s total installed power capacity today.
  • Solar capacity region wise:
    The solar resource is strongest in the north and northwest of the country (Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir), but the potential is also considerably high in several other states, including. Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh.

India’s renewable energy target:

  • Target: 175GW from renewable energy sources by 2022 · Break up:100 GW from solar, 60 GW from the wind, 10 GW from biomass and 5 GW from small hydroelectric projects. · 100GW = 60 GW of utility-scale projects (both solar PV and CSP) like solar parks + 40 GW of rooftop solar applications for commercial users and households, together with some small-scale schemes and off-grid capacity
    PV: Photo Voltaic CSP: Concentrated Solar Power
  • Note: World’s total installed solar power capacity was 181 GW in 2014. If India achieves this target, it would make it a global leader in renewable energy.
    National Solar Mission or Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM)
    It was launched on 11th January 2010 Apex ministry: Ministry of New and
    Renewable Energy (MNRE).
    · India’s Solar capacity in 2010: 17.8MW
  • Grid connected solar power in 2016: 8GW

Objectives of JNNSM:

  • To establish India as a global leader in solar energy
  • To promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy security challenges
  • Short term: To create enabling environment for penetration of solar technology throughout the country Mission’s target was revised in 2015,
    Initial Target: 20GW
    Revised Target: 100GW
    Target is to be achieved in 3 phases,
    • 1st Phase: 2010-13
    • 2nd Phase: 2013–17
    • 3rd Phase: 2017–22

    At each stage, progress will be reviewed and roadmap for future targets will be adopted.
    Note: We are currently in 2nd phase of the mission

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