Prelims Level
Mains Level

 Social Protection Programmes

  • Keeping in view the importance of the informal sector’s share in total workforce, the government has been focusing on expanding the coverage of social security schemes so as to provide a minimum level of social protection to workers in the unorganised sector and ensure inclusive development.
  • These include the following

Aam Admi Bima Yojana (AABY)

  • The Janashree Bima Yojana (JBY) has now been merged with the AABY to provide better administration of life insurance cover to the economically backward sections of society.
  • The schemes extends life and disability cover to persons between the ages of 18 and 59 years living below and marginally above the poverty line under 47 identified landless households.
  • It provides insurance cover of a sum of ` 30000 on natural death, ` 75000 on death due to accident ` 37500 for partial permanent disability due to accident and `75000 on death or total permanent disability due to accident.
  • The scheme also provides and add – on benefit of scholarship of `100 per month per child paid on half – yearly basis to a maximum of two children per member studying in classes 9 to 12 (including ITI courses).

Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY)

  • The RSBY launched on 1st October 2007, to provide smart card based cashes health insurance cover of ` 30000 per family per annum on a family floater basis to BPL families (a unit of five) in the unorganised sector.
  • The scheme became operation from, 1st April, 2008. The premium is shared on 75:25 basis by the Centre and State Governments.

In the case of the North – Eastern states and Jammu and Kashmir, the premium is shared in a 90:10 ratio. As on 31st December, 2012, the scheme is being implemented in 27 states/UTs with more than 3.34 core smart card issued.

National Social Security Fund

A National Social Security Fund for unorganised sector workers with initial allocation of ` 1000 crore has been set – up. This fund will support schemes for weavers, toddy tappers, rickshaw puller, beedi workers etc.

Rural Infrastructure and Development

  •  The Government of India has been according high priority over the years to building rural infrastructure with the objective of facilitating a higher degree of rural – urban integration and for achieving an even pattern of growth and opportunities for the poor and disadvantaged sections of society Programmes for achieving this include the following.

Bharat Nirman

  • This programme, launched in 2005-06 for building infrastructure and basic amenities in a rural areas, has six components, namely rural housing, irrigation potential, drinking water, rural roads, electrification and rural telephone.
    Indira Aawas Yojan
  • The IAY is one of the 6 components of Bharat Nirman, the unit assistance provided to rural households for construction of a dwelling unit under the IAY is being revised with effect from 1st April 2013 from, ` 45000 to ` 70000 in plain areas and from 48500 to 75000 in hilly/ difficult areas/ integrated action plan (IAP) districts.
  • Eighty – two left wing extremism (LWE) affected districts have been made eligible for a higher rate of unit assistance of ` 48500 to ` 75000 (with effect from 1st April, 2013) under the homestead scheme the unit assistance for purchase /acquisition of house sites for those rural BPL households. Who have neither land nor a house site will be enhanced from 100000 to 200000 with effect from 1st April, 2013, to be shared by the centre and states in a 50 : 50 ratio. For effective monitoring of the IAY, MIS software Awaassoft has been put in place.

Mantri Gram Sadak Yojan (PMGSY)

  • The PMGSY was launched in December 2000, as a fully funded centrally sponsored scheme with objective of providing connectivity to the eligible unconnected habitations in the core network with a population of 500 persons and above (as per Census 2001) in plains areas and 250 persons and above in hill states, tribal areas, desert areas, desert and in the 82 selected tribal and backward districts under the IAP Rural Drinking Water

Rural Drinking Water

  • Drinking water supply is one of the components of Bharat water, garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water disposal. With this broader concept of sanitation, CRSP adopted a demand driven approach with the name Total sanitation campaign (TSC) with effect from 1999. Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) is given to Panchayat Raj Institution that achieve 100% coverage of sanitation facilities
  •  Encouraged by the success of NGP, the TSC is being renamed as ‘Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan’ (NBA). The objective is to accelerate the sanitation coverage in the rural areas so as to comprehensively cover the rural community through renewed strategies and saturation approach. Nirmal Bharart Abhiyan (NBA) envisages covering the entire community for saturated outcomes with a view to create Nirmal Gram Panchayats with following priorities
    − Provision of individual house hold Latrine (IHHL) of both below poverty line (BPL) and Nirman. About 73.91% of rural habitations are fully covered under the provision of safe drinking water in rural areas as measured by habitations with the provision of at least 40 litres per capita per day (lpcd) of safe drinking water. The rest are either partially covered or have chemical contamination in drinking water source.
  •  In the 12th Five Year Plan period, the focus is on increasing the service level from 40 Ipcd to 55 lpcd and provision of drinking water through piped water supply schemes and household tap connections.
  • Rural sanitation – Total sanitation Campaign (TSC) / Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan
    Government started the central rural sanitation programme (CRSP) in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women.
  • The concept of sanitation was expanded to include personal hygiene, home sanitation, safe indentified above poverty line (APL) households with in a Gram Panchayat (GP).
    − Gram Panchayats where all habitations have access to water to be taken up. Priority may be given to gram Panchayats having functional piped water supply.
    − Provision of sanitation facilities in government schools and Anganwadis in Government buildings with these GPs.
    − Solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) for proposed and exist ion Nirmal Gramas
    − Extensive capacity building of the stake holders like panchyat Raj Institutions (PRIs), village water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs) and filed functionaries for sustainable sanitation.
    − Appropriate convergence with MNREGS with unskilled man days and skilled man – days.

indentified above poverty line (APL) households with in a Gram Panchayat (GP).
− Gram Panchayats where all habitations have access to water to be taken up. Priority may be given to gram Panchayats having functional piped water supply.
− Provision of sanitation facilities in government schools and Anganwadis in Government buildings with these GPs.
− Solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) for proposed and exist ion Nirmal Gramas
− Extensive capacity building of the stake holders like panchyat Raj Institutions (PRIs), village water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs) and filed functionaries for sustainable sanitation.
− Appropriate convergence with MNREGS with unskilled man days and skilled man – days.

Urban Infrastructure, Housing and Sanitation

  • The central government has been assisting state government by way of various centrally sponsored schemes through national financial institution providing better urban infrastructure, housing and sanitation in the country.
  •  Some of the initiatives in this areas are as follows.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM)
  •  It was launched on 3rd December, 2005, for the duration of 7 years up to 2011 -12, with the objective of reform driven and fast track development of cities across the country, with focus on bringing about efficiency in urban infrastructure, service delivery mechanisms, community participation and accountability of Urban Local Bodies and Parastatal agencies towards citizens.
  • The JNNURM has two of its four components devoted to shelter and basic service needs of the poor. These are Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) for 65 select cities and integrated Housing and Slum Development Programmes (IHSDP) for other cities and towns.
  • All states are covered under the BSUP and all states and UTs except Lakshadweep under the IHSDP.

    Rajiv Aawas Yojana (RAY)

  • Ray envisages a Slum free India with inclusive and equitable cities in which every citizen has access to basic civic infrastructure and social amenities and decent shelter.
  • The RAY was launched on 2nd June, 2011, with the vision of creating a slum free India. Phase I of the RAY (preparatory phase) is for a period of 2 years from the data of approval of the scheme and is currently under implementation. Phase II of the RAY shall be for the remaining period of the 12th Five year Plan.
  • An amount of ` 50 crore has been allocated for the year 2012 -13.
    Providing of Urban Amenities in Rural Areas (PURA)
    Lack of livelihood opportunities, modern amenities and service for decent living in rural areas lead to migration of people to urban areas. There are also wide gaps in the availability to physical and social infrastructure between rural and urban areas. Subsequently, PURA was implemented as a pilot scheme during the 10th plan and a totally restructured central sector scheme during the 11th plan.
  •  Some of the features of restructured PURA are
    − Convergence of central and state schemes
    − Implementation through a single private partner
    − Site selection by private partner on the basic of social – economic growth considerations.
    − Agreement between the private partner and panchayat.
  • PURA has been upscaled as a Full Fledged scheme during the 12th plan and implemented all over the country.
  • Mission Holistic and accelerated development of compact areas around a potential growth centre in gram Panchayat through PPP frame work for providing livelihood opportunities and urban amenities to improve the quality of life in urban areas.
  •  Strategy : PPP Pilot testing and up scaling.
    Integrated Low Cost Sanitation Scheme (ILCS)
  • The ILCS aims at conversion of individual dry latrines into pour flush latrines there by liberating manual scavengers from the age – old, degrading practice of manually carrying night soil. The allocation for the scheme for 2012 -13, is ` 25 crore.

Education

  • India, which had a bottom heavy population is now graduating to an economy with middle – heavy population. To reap the benefits of the demographic dividend to the full. India has to provide education to its population and that too quality education.
  • The draft 12th plan focuses on teacher training and evaluation and measures to enforce accountability. It also the need to build capacity in secondary schools to absorb the pass outs from expanded primary enrolments.

Elementary and Secondary Education

  •  Many schemes have been initiated by the government for elementary and secondary education. Some are as follow.
    Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) / Right to Education (RTE)
  • The right of children to free and compulsory education (RTE) act 2009, legislating article 21 A of the constitution of India. Become operation in the country on 1st April 2010. It implies that every child has a right to elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school, which satisfies certain essential norms and standards, significant reduction in the number of out – of – school children on account of SSA interventions has been noted.
  • Top 5 government education schemes are Shiksha Sahayog Yojana, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Saakshar Bharart, Kanya Saaksharta Porthsan Yojana and Kasturba Gaandhi Balika Vidyalaya Yojana.
  • Rashrtiya Madhyamik Skisha Abhiyan (RMSA) has quality intervention schemes to ensure that all second any conform to prescribed worms, removing gender, socio – economic and disability barriers.

Mid – Day Meals (MDM)

  •  Under the MDM, cooked mid – day meals are provided to all children attending classes I – VIII in government, local body, Government aided and National Child Labour Project (NCLP) schools.
  • Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS)/ alternate and innovative education centre including madarsa / maqtabs supported under the SSA across the country are also covered, under this programme.
  • At present, the cooked mid – day meal provides an energy content of 450 calories and protein content of 12 gm at primary stage and an energy content of 700 calories and protein content of 20 gm at upper primary stage.
  • Adequate quantity of micro – nutrients like iron, folic acid and vitamin A are also recommended for convergence with the NRHM. The MDM – MIS has been launched to monitor the scheme and annual data entries for about 11.08 lakh schools have been completed.
  • The MDM – MIS will be integrated with the interactive voice response system (IVRS) meant to capture the information from the schools within a span of 1 hour on daily to monitor the scheme.

Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)

  •  RMSA was launched in March, 2009, with the objective to enhance access to secondary education and to improve its quality.
  •  Objectives include : improving quality of education imported at the secondary level through making all secondary schools conform to prescribed norms; removing gender, socio – economic and disability barriers; providing universal access to secondary level education by 2017 and achieving universal retention by 2020.

Important physical facilities provided under the scheme are – additional class rooms, laboratories, libraries, toilet blocks, art and craft rooms and residential hostels for teachers.

Saakshar Bharat (SB) / Adult Education

  • Saakshar Bharat has been formulated with the objective of achieving 80 % literacy level by 2012 at national level by focusing on adult women literacy seeking to reduce the gap between male and female literacy to not more than 10% points. The principal target of the mission non literate adults in the age group of 15 years and beyond.

Initiatives in Education in the 12th Plan

  •  A number of initiatives have been during the 11th plan period with focus on improvement of access along with equity and excellence, adoption of state – specific strategies, enhancing the relevance of higher education through curriculum reforms in governance in higher education.
  •  The major initiative are as follows
    − During the 11th plan, 16 central universities were established, which include conversion of 3 state universities to central universities.
    − Seven new Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), 8 new Indian Institutes of Technology (IIRS), 10 new national Institutes of Technology (NITs), 5 Indian Institutes of Science Educational and Research (IISERs) and 2 schools of planning and Architecture (SPAs) were also established.
  • − A scheme of interest subsidy on Educational loans to economically weaker sections (EWS) students was introduced from 2009 -10.
    − To address the increasing skill challenges of the India IT industry, the government has approved setting up to 20 new Indian Institutes of information Technology (IITs) on PPP basis. The project is targeted for completion in 9 years from 2011-12 to 2016 -20. The government of India also provided per polytechnic to meet the costs of establishing new government polytechnics in un – served districts.

    Health

  • Improvement in the standard of living and health status of the population has remained one of the important objectives for policymakers in India.
  •  In line with the National Health Policy 2002, the NRHM was launched on 12th April, 2005 with the objective of providing accessible, affordable and quality
  • healthcare to the rural population. It seeks to bring about architectural correction in the health systems by adopting the approaches like increasing involvement of community in planning and management of healthcare facilities, improved programme management, flexible financing and provision of untied grants, decentralised planning and augmentation of human resources.

The government has launched a large number of programmes and schemes to address the major concern and bridge the gaps in existing health infrastructure and provide accessible, affordable, equitable healthcare.

National Rural Health Mission (NRHM)

  • The NRHM, which provides an overarching umbrella to the existing health and family welfare programmes, was launched in 2005, to improve accessibility to quality healthcare for the rural population, bridge gaps in healthcare, facilitate decentralised planning in the health sector and bring about inter – sect oral convergence.
  • Better infrastructure, availability of manpower, drugs and equipment and augmentation of health human resources in health facilities a different levels have led to improvement in health care delivery services and increase in out patient department (OPD) and in Patient Department (IPD) services.
  • The NRHM is thus also about the health sector reform. The architectural correction envisaged under NHRM is organised around 5 pillars, each of which is made up of a number of overlapping core strategies.
    − Increasing participation and ownership by the community
    − Improved management capacity.
    − Flexible financing
    − Innovation in human resources development for the health sector.
    − Setting of standards and norms with monitoring.

Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA)

  • One of the key components of the National Rural Health Mission is to provide every village in the country with the trained female community health activist ASHA or accredit social health Activist elected from the village itself and accountable to it, the ASHA will be work as an interface between the community and the public health system.
  • Following are the key components of ASHA
    − ASHA must primarily be a women resident of the village, married / widowed/ divorced, preferably in the age group of 25 to 45 years.
    − She should be a literate woman with formal education up to class VIII. This may be relaxed only it no suitable person with this qualification is available.
    − Capacity building of ASHA is being seen as a continuous process. ASHA will have to undergo series of training episodes to acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and confidence for performing her spelled out roles.
    − ASHA will mobiles the community and facilitate them in accessing health and health related services available at the Anganwadi / sub- centre/ primary health centre, such as immunisation, Ante Natal Check – up (ANC), post Natal check – up supplementary nutrition, sanitation and other services being provided by the government.
    − She will act as a depot holder for essential provisions being made available to all habitations like Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORS), Iron Folic Acid Tablet (IFA), Chloroquine, Disposable Delivery Kits (DDK), Oral Pills and Condoms, etc.
    − At the village level, it is recognised that ASHA cannot function without adequate institution support. Women’s committee (like self – help groups or women’s health committees.),Village health and Sanitation Committee of the Gram Panchayat, peripheral health workers especially ANMs and Anganwadi workers and the trainers of ASHA and in service periodic training would be a major source of support to ASHA.

Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM).

  • The roles of Auxiliary Nurse Midwife (ANM) and ASHA have been integrated in various ways. The ANM will hold weekly fortnightly meeting with ASHA and provide on – job training by discussing the activities undertaken during the week/ fortnight and provide guidance in case ASHA encounters any problem.

 

Anganwadi Worker (AWW)

  • The responsibilities of Anganwadi worker (AWW) will be to their role will be guide ASHA in performing on health and integrated with the role of ASHA. AWW will guide ASHA in performing activities such as organising health day once / twice a month at Aganwadi centre and orientating women on health related issues such as importance of nutritious food, personal hygiene, care during pregnancy, importance of immunisation etc.
  • Angawadi worker will be depot holder for drug kits and will be issuing it to ASHA. SHA will support the AWW in mobilising pregnant and lactating women and infants for nutrition supplement. She would also take initiative for bringing the beneficiaries from the village on specific days of immunisation etc.
S.NOPARAMETER CURRENT LEVELS
1Crude Birth Rate (CBR) (per 1000 population )21.8 (2011)
2Crude Death Rate (CDR) (per 1000 population)7.1 (2011)
3total Fertility Rate (TFR) (per woman)2.5 (2010)
4Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) (per 1000 live births)212 (2007-9)
5IMR (per 1000 live birth)
Rural
Urban
44 (2011)
48
29
6Child (0-4 years) Mortality Rate (per 1000 Children)133.3 (2010)
7Life Expectancy at birth
total
male
female
(2006 -10)
66.1
64.6
67.7

National Urban Health Mission (NUHM)

  • The national Urban Health Mission (NUHM) is a sub – mission of National Health Mission (NHM). HUHM envisages to meet health care need of the urban population with the focus on urban poor, by making available to them essential primary health care services and reducing their out of pocket expenses for treatment.
  • This will be achieved by strengthening the existing health care service delivery system, targeting the people living in slums and converging with various schemes relating to wider determinants of health drinking water, sanitation, school education, etc. Implemented by the ministries of urban development, housing and urban poverty alleviation, human resource development and women and child development.

 

NUHM would Endeavour to achieve its goal through

  •  Need based city specific urban health care system to meet the diverse health care needs of the urban poor and other vulnerable sectors.
  •  Institutional mechanism and management systems to meet the health related challenges of a rapidly growing urban population.
  •  Partnership with community and local bodies for a more proactive involvements in planning, implementation and monitoring of health activities.
  • Availability of resources for providing essential primary health care to urban poor service providers and other stakeholders.
  • Partnership with NGOs for profit and not for profit health.
  • NUHUM would cover all state capital, district headquarters and cities / towns with a population of more than 50000. It would primarily focus on slum dwellers and other marginalised groups like reckshaw pullers, street vendors, railway and bus station coolies, homeless people, street children, construction site workers.
  • The centre state funding pattern will be 75.25 for all the states except North – Eastern states including Sikkim and other special category states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand for whom the centre state funding pattern will 901.10. The programme implementation plans (PIPs) set by the state are apprised and approved by the Ministry.
  • It aims to address the public health care needs of urban population. Addressing the needs of public health cared services for urban population would involve revamping / creation. Up gradation of primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare services delivery system in urban areas.

    Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)

 

  • JSY is continuation of the previous delivery allowance scheme of the Central Government. It is being implemented with the objective of reducing maternal and neonatal mortality by promoting institutional delivery among poor pregnant women.
  •  Under this scheme, pregnant women belonging to below poverty line families and SC, ST families will get an assistance of `500 if delivered at home `600 for urban institutional delivery, `700 for delivery in health centers in rural areas and `1500 for caesarean delivery. This benefit is available if delivered in recognised private health institutions other than government hospitals also. The eligibility conditions for the beneficiaries are as follows
    − The woman delivering at home or admitted to sub centre / government hospital/registered private hospital (general ward), must belong to BPL family.
    − Current delivery must be the first or second live delivery.

− She should be above 19 years of age and must have got ANC check up at least 3 times.
− Must have taken Iron and Folic acid tablets and TT injection.
− SC/ST women not belonging to BPL families are also entitled for this benefit if they are admitted to general ward of government or registered private hospital.

  •  The JSY launched in 2005, aims to bring down the MMR by promoting institutional deliveries conducted by skilled birth attendants.

    Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojan (PMSSY)

  •  The PKSSY was launched in March 2006, with aims at correcting regional imbalances in the availability of affordable / reliable tertiary healthcare services and augmenting facilities for quality medical education in the country.

Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH)

  •  The Indian system of medicine is also being developed and promoted by involvement / integration of the AYUSH system in national healthcare delivery through an allocation of 990 core plan outlay in 2013-13. To integrate AYUSH health care with mainstream allopathic health card services, the states are provided financial support for co – location of AYUSH facilities at PHCs, CHCs and district hospital and supply of essential drugs to standalone AYUSH hospitals/ dispensaries.

Women Empowerment Programmes

  •  Some of the important schemes and policy initiative for economic and social empowerment of women and child development are as follows.

Rajiv Gandhi Scheme Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (AFSEAG) SABLA

  •  Sabla now operational in 205 selected district, aims at all round
    development of adolescent girls in the age group 11 – 18 years and making them self – reliant with a special focus on out – of- school girls.
  • The scheme has 2 major components, nutrition and non – nutrition. Nutrition is being given in the form of ‘take home rations or hot cooked meals’ to out of school 11-14 years old girls and all adolescent girls in the 14 -18 age group.

The non nutrition component address the developmental needs of 11-18 years old adolescent girls, who are provided iron folic acid supplementation, health check up and referral services, nutrition and health education, counseling/ guidance on family welfare, skill education, guidance on accessing public services and vocational training. The target of the scheme is to provide nutrition to 1 crore adolescent girls in a year.

Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY)

  •  IGMSY, conditional Maternity Benefit (CMB) is a centrally sponsored schemes for pregnant and lactating (P and L) women to improve their health and nutrition status to better enabling environment by providing cash incentives to pregnant and nursing mother, it is being implemented using the platform of ICDS.
  • The scheme attempts to partly compensate for wage loss to pregnant and lactating women both prior to and after delivery of the child. The scheme envisages provide cash directly to the beneficiary through their Bank Accounts / Post Office Accounts, in response to individual fulfilling specific conditions.
  • The scheme covers all pregnant and lactating women above 19 years of age and above for first 2 live birth are entitled for benefits under the scheme except all government/ PSUs (central and state).
  • The IGMSY is a conditional cash transfer schemes for pregnant and lactating women implemented initially on pilot basis in 53 selected districts in the country from October, 2010. As on 31st December, 2012, more than 3 lakhs beneficiaries had been covered and 27 crores released to states. The scheme is now covered under the Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) programme with 9 districts being included in the first phase.

Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme

Launched on 2nd October, 1975, ICDS scheme represent one of the world’s largest and most unique programmes for early childhood development. ICDS is the foremost symbol of India’s commitment to her children – India’s responses to the challenge of providing pre – school education on one hand and breaking the vicious cycle of malnutrition, morbidity, reduced learning capacity and mortality, on the other.

National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW)

  • This initiative for holistic empowerment of women through better convergence and engendering of policies, programmes and schemes of different ministries was operationalised in 2010-11.

Under the mission, institutional structures at state level including state mission Authorities headed by Chief Ministers and State Resource Centres for Women (SRCWs) for spearheading initiatives for women’s empowerment have been established across the country.

Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)

  • The RMK provides micro – credit in a quasi-informal manner, lending to Intermediate Micro – credit organisation (IMOs) across states. If focuses on poor women and their empowerment through the provision of credit for livelihood related activities.
    Other Women Empowerment Programmes
  •  Support to Training and Employment programme for women (STEPW) (set up in 2003 -04) to increase the self reliance and autonomy of women by enhancing their productivity and enabling them to take up income generation activities.
  • Swayamsiddha (set up in 2001) Aims at organising women into self help groups of form a strong institutional base.
  •  Swadhar (set up in 1995) Aims to support women to become independent in spirit, in thought, in action and have full control over their lives rather than be the victim of others actions.
  •  Development of women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA) (set up in 1982) to improve the socio – economic status of the poor women in the rural areas through creation of groups of women for income – generating activities on a self sustaining basis.
  •  Dhana Laxmi (set up in March, 2008) conditional cash transfer scheme for the girl child to encourage families to educate girl children and to prevent child marriage.
  •  Ujjawala (set – up in 4th December, 2007) A comprehensive scheme for prevention of trafficking with specific components – prevention, rescue, rehabilitation reintegration and repatriation of victims.
  •  Gender Budgeting Scheme (GBS) (set – up in 2004) with a view to empower women.
    ❖ Swavalamban (NORAD) (Norwegian Agency for international development) scheme is being implemented by the Department of women and child development, government of India with partial assistance from Norway since, 1982
  • The target group under the scheme are the poor and needy women, women from weaker sections of the society, such as scheduled castes, scheduled tribes etc.
  • Financial assistance is provided to undertake training programmes for women in both traditional as well as non – traditional trade.

Social Defence

  •  Major social defence programmes are given below

National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP)

  • The national social assistance scheme (NSAS) or National Social assistance programme (NSAP) is a flagship welfare programmes of the government of India Initiated on 15th August, 1995.
  • Article 41 of the Indian constitution directs the state to provide public assistance to its citizens in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement and in other cases of undeserved want within the limit of its economic capacity and development. The scheme is a giant step towards achieving the directive principle in the constitution.
  • NSAP at present comprised of Indira Gandhi National Old age pension Scheme (IGNOAPS), Indra Gandhi National widow pension Scheme (IGNWPS), Indira Gandhi National Disability pension Scheme (IGNDPS), National family benefit scheme (NFBS) and annapurna.

National Old Age Pension Scheme

  • The national old age pension scheme provides a pension for the elderly who live below the poverty line.
    − The age of the applicant (male female) should be 60 or above (revised from 65 in 2009)
    − The applicant may reside in either rural or urban areas, but must be living under the poverty line.
    − The amount of old age pension in ` 300 per month for applicants aged 60-79. For applicants aged above 80 years, the amount has been revised in ` 500 a month according to the 2012 Budget.
    − The ceiling on the total number of old age pensions for purpose of claiming central assistance will be specified for the states and union territories from time to time.
    − The benefit under NOAPS should be disbursed in not less than two installments in a year and if possible, the benefit may be disbursed in more installments as per direction of state government.
  • The death of a pensioner is immediately reported of the appropriate sanctioning authority by the village a panchayats and municipalities and the payments are promptly stopped by the same. Any pension amount sanctioned on the basis of false or mistaken information about eligibility can also be stopped or recovered but the sanctioning authority.

National Family Benefit Scheme (NFBS)

  • In case of the death of the primary bread winner of a household living below poverty line conditions, a lump sum grant of ` 20000 (from fiscal 2012 -13) is provided to the household.
  • The primary breadwinner as specified in the scheme, whether male or female, had to be a member of the household whose earning contributed substantially to the total household income.
  • The death of such a primary breadwinner occurring whist he or she in the age group of 18 to 64 years. i.e. more than 18 years of age and less than 65 years of age, makes the family eligible to receive grants under this scheme.

Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme

  • A pension of ` 300 per month (from fiscal 2012 -13) to be granted to widows aged 40-59 living below poverty line conditions. Pradhan of gram panchayat shall review the list of widows and report in case of any re marriage.
    Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS)
  •  It is a component of National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP). Under IGNDPS, central assistance of ` 300 pm per beneficiary is provided of persons with severe or multiple disabilities in the ages group of 18-79 years and belonging to a housheold living below poverty line (BPL) as per criteria prescribed by government of India.

Annapuran Scheme

  • On 1st April, 2000 a new scheme known as Annapurna scheme was launched. This scheme aimed at providing food security to meet the requirement of those senior citizens who though eligible, have remained uncovered under the NOAPS. Under the Annapurna Scheme 10 kg of food grains per month are provided free of cost to the beneficiary. The number of persons to be benefited from the scheme are in the first instance, 20 % of the persons eligible to receive pension under NOAPS in State/ UTs.

Direct Benefit Transfer

  • The government has decided to initiate direct transfer of subsidy under various social scheme into beneficiaries bank accounts. The transfer will be enabled through a payments bridge known as Aadhar Payment Bridge. (APB) where in funds can be transferred into any Aadhar – enabled bank account on the basic of the Aadhar number. This eliminates chances of fraud/ error in the cash transfer process. The Aadhar number will be linked to the beneficiary database, so that ghost / duplicates are weeded out from the beneficiary list.

To make withdraw of money by the beneficiaries easier and more accessible and friendly. micro ATMs will be set – up by banks / post offices throughout the country in an open manner particularly with the help of SHGs, community service centres (CSCs) post office, grocery stores, petrol pumps, etc in rural areas and accessible pocket. This is being done initially in 51 pilot districts across the country from 1st January, 2013. Pilots on direct benefit.

Brief Descriptions of Major Programmes

  •  Transfer (DBT) have also been successfully conducted in the stated of Jharkhand, Tripura, and Maharashtra to transfer monetary benefits related to rural employment, pension, the IAY and other social welfare scheme. An important pilot is the fair price shops in East Godavari and Hyderabad districts of Andhra Pradesh, which are being enabled to carry out online Aadhar authentication.

    UPSC Previous Year Questions:

    1. With reference to National Rural Health Mission, Which of the following are the jobs of ‘ASHA”, trained community health workers? (CSE 2012)
    1. Accompanying women to the health facility for antenatal care check up
    2. Using pregnancy test kits for early detection pregnancy
    3. Providing information on nutrition and immunization
    4. Conducting the delivery of baby.
    Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
    a) 1, 2 and 3 only
    b) 2 and 3 only
    c) 1 and 3 only
    d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

2. How does the National Rural Livelihood Mission seek to improve Livelihood Mission seeks to improve livelihood options of rural poor? (CSE 2012)
1. By setting up a large number of new manufacturing industries and agribusiness centres in rural areas.
2. By strengthening ‘self-help groups’ and providing skills development
3. By supplying seeds, fertilizers, diesel pump-sets and micro-irrigation equipment free of cost of farmers.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
a) 1 and 2 only
b) 2 only
c) 1 and 3 only
d) 1, 2 and 3
3. With reference to ‘Aam Admi Bima Yojana’, consider the following statements (CSE 2011)
1. The member insured under the scheme must be the head of the family or an earning member of the family in a rural landless household.2. The member insured must be in the age group of 30 to 65 years.
3. There is a provision for free scholarship for up to two children of the insured who are studying between classes 9 and 12.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only b) 2 and 3
c) 1 and 3 d) 1, 2 and 3
4. Two of the schemes launched by the Government of India for Women’s development are Swadhar and Swayam Siddha. As regards the difference between them, consider the following statements: (CSE 2010)
1. Swayam Siddha is meant for those in difficult circumstances such as women survivors of natural disasters or terrorism, women prisoners released from jails, mentally challenged women etc. whereas Swadhar is meant for holistic empowerment of women through Self Help Groups.
2. Swayam Siddha is implemented through Local Self Government bodies or reputed Voluntary Organizations whereas Swadhar is implemented through the ICDS units set up in the states.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
5. Consider the following statements with reference to Indira Gandhi National Old age pension scheme (IGNOAPS) (CSE 2008)
1. All persons of 60 years or above belonging to the households below poverty line in rural areas are eligible.
2. The central assistance under this scheme is at the rate of Rs.300 per month per beneficiary under the scheme, states have been urged to give matching amounts.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only b) 2 only
c) both 1 and 2 d) Neither 1 nor 2
ANSWERS:
1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (d)

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