A Planet in crisis

Prelims level : Environment Mains level : GS-III Environment & Biodiversity |Climatic Change Conservation, Environmental Pollution & Degradation, Eia
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Why in News?

  • CBD COP 15 is being held in Montreal, Canada.


  • The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) traces its origin to the Rio summit of 1992.
  • It is argued that the CBD does not grab the media attention like UNFCCC COP27 as no world leader and head of state made any significant commitments. 
  • This is also because the CBD largely continues to be framed as an ‘environmentalist’ concern, unlike the COP which was used by the forces of capitalism to put forth the idea of renewable energy sources that has the potential to benefit some entrepreneurs.
  • Furthermore, cyclones and melting glaciers make the climate crisis visible. However, biodiversity loss continues to be largely invisible. 
  • Member countries have agreed to prepare concrete road maps by the year 2024 and the richer countries have committed $30 billion an annum by 2030.

Status of Biodiversity:

  • According to a study by the United Nations, it is estimated that nearly 34,000 plant and 5,200 animal species, including one in eight of the world’s bird species, face the risk of extinction. 
  • Similarly, over 30% of breeds of main farm animal species are at high risk of extinction. 
  • Around 45% of the planet’s original forests are already cleared. 

India’s Stand:

  • It is suggested by several critics that India is not willing to reduce the use of pesticides, despite its impact on biodiversity, land, and sea.
  • This seems to be anachronistic to many especially when India is considered to be a champion of conservation and living in harmony with nature. 
  • India has argued that different countries have different levels of responsibility towards biodiversity conservation (which requires richer nations to be more generous funders of global conservation efforts).
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