Why in news?

  • Recently several missiles, such as Agni II, Dhanush, Prithvi-II and Nag, being developed under IGDMP were successfully test fired at various locations.

Integrated Guided Missile Development Plan

  • It was envisioned in 1983 by former President Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam to help India attain self-sufficiency in the field of missile technology.
  • Five missile systems have been developed under this programme namely Agni, Akash, Trishul, Prithvi and Nag.
  • In 2008 DRDO announced the successful completion of the program

4.1.1. AGNI

  • It is an intercontinental surface-to-surface, nuclear capable ballistic missile developed by DRDO.
  •  At present, US, China, Russia, UK, France and Israel are known to have ICBMs.
  •  It has been equipped with very high accuracy
  • Ring Laser Gyro based Inertial Navigation System (RINS) and Micro Navigation System (MINS).
  •  India has reportedly also been working on multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRV) for the Agni-V in order to ensure a credible second strike capability or credible minimum deterrence. MIRV means one missile can carry several warheads, each for different targets.


  • •Single-stage engine powered by solid

  • Short-range ballistic missile.

  • Coverage: 700 km

  • Two stage solid propellant engine.

  • Medium-range ballistic missile

  • Coverage: 2000 km
  • Two-stage solid propellant engine

  • Intermediate range ballistic missile

  • Coverage: 3000 km
  • •Two-stage solid propellant engine

  • Intermediate range ballistic missile

  • Coverage: 4000 km

  • •Powered by 3 stage solid, all composite

rocket motors

  •  It’s an Intercontinental Ballistic Misille
  • Coverage: 5000 km
  • Maximim speed: 24 times speed of sound
  • Canister-lauch for quick-response, higher reliability, longer shelf-life, less maintenance and enhanced road mobility

4.1.2. PRITHVI

  • Both Prithvi-I and Prithvi-II is surface-to-surface ballistic missile
  • Prithvi-II is indigenously developed and nuclear-capable surface-to-surface missile. It is a short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) developed by DRDO.
  • It is capable of carrying 500-1,000 kilogram of warheads.
  • It uses advanced inertial guidance system with manoeuvring trajectory to hit its target.
  • Dhanush (also known as Prithvi III), a naval variant of this Prithvi missile, has also been tested recently.


Short-range,road-mobile,liquid propellan,ballistic missile.
Short-range,road-mobile,liquid-propellant ballistic missile.
It uses a single-stage,liquid propellant twin engine.

It uses a single-stage, liquid propellant twin engine.
It has a minimum range of 40 km and a maximum of 150 km.
It has a maximum range of 350 km.

4.1.3. NAG

  •  It is a third generation “fire and forget” ATGM (anti-tank guided missile)developed by the DRDO.
  • The missile is equipped with highly advanced Imaging Infrared Radar (IRR) seeker and has integrated avionics technology in its arsenal.
  • Nag can be launched from land and air-based platforms. The land version is currently available for integration on the Nag missile carrier (NAMICA), which is derived from a BMP-2 tracked infantry combat vehicle.
  • The helicopter-launched configuration, designated as helicopter-launched NAG (HELINA), can be fired from Dhruv advanced
    light helicopter (ALH) and HAL Rudra attack helicopter.
  • The land based version has maximum range of 4 km while air based version has a maximum range of 7 km.


  • Developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), its a supersonic surface-to-air missile.
  • Akash has a strike range of about 25 km and can carry a 55- kg fragmentation warhead
  • It’s designed to neutralise multiple aerial targets attacking from several directions simultaneously.
  • The system is autonomous and its operation is fully automated.

Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO)

  • It works under Department of Defence Research and Development of Ministry of Defence.
  • DRDO was formed in 1958 through the amalgamation Technical Development Establishment (TDEs) of the Indian Army and the Directorate of Technical Development & Production (DTDP) with the Defence Science Organisation (DSO)
  •  Mission: DRDO dedicatedly working towards enhancing self-reliance in Defence Systems and undertakes design & development leading to production of world class weapon systems and equipment in accordance with the expressed needs and the qualitative requirements laid down by the three services.


  • Developed by DRDO, It’s a Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile.
  • It can be used as an anti-sea skimmer from a ship against low flying attacking missiles.
  • It employs dual thrust propulsion stage using high-energy solid propellant.
  • Trishul, with its quickest reaction time, high frequency operation, high manoeuverability, high lethal capability and multi-roles for three services, is state-of-the-art system providing considerable advantage to the Armed forces.



Why in news?

  • The land-to-land configuration of BRAHMOS Block III, missile was launched from a Mobile Autonomous Launcher (MAL) for its full-range testing in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

About the Missile

  • It is a joint venture between India and Russia and is named after the Brahmaputra and Moscowa rivers.
  • The first stage of the system takes the missile to supersonic speed and the second stage with liquid ramjet accelerates it to 2.8 mach.
  • Brahmos ALCM (Air Launched Cruise Missile), is the heaviest weapon to be deployed on India’s Su-30.


  • With this test launch, India becomes the first country to have the capability to have a multi-platform weapon.
  • It can be used for multi-mission roles, including precision strikes on terror camps across the border as well as against high value naval targets in the Indian Ocean.
  • After India became a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in 2016, India and Russia are now planning to jointly
    develop a new generation of Brahmos missiles with 600 km-plus range. Earlier range was restricted to sub-300 kms.
  • Ramjet: A ramjet engine does not have any turbines unlike the turbojet engines. It achieves compression of intake air just by the forward speed of the air vehicle.
  • Scramjet engine The first experiment towards the realisation of an Air Breathing Propulsion System in Scramjet Engine was conducted in 2016. It uses Hydrogen as fuel and the Oxygen from the atmospheric air as the oxidiser.
  • Fire and Forget: It means the missile guidance does not require further guidance after the launch and still hit the target without the launcher being in line-of-sight of the target.


Why in news?

Recently, DRDO successfully test fired NIRBHAY missile.

About the Missile

  • NIRBHAY is India’s first indigenous Long Range Sub-Sonic Cruise Missile, developed and designed by Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • It can carry a warhead of 200 kg to 300 kg at a speed of 0.6 to 0.7 Mach with a launch weight of about 1500 kg.
  • It can avoid detection as it has ability to cruise at heights as low as 100 m.
  • It is powered by solid rocket motor booster and has a range of 1000km.
  • The successful development would provide a definite boost to armed forces, indigenous defence industry and India’s capability to design and develop lethal weapons of strategic importance.
  •  With the successful launch of NIRBHAY, India joins the select league of nations that possess the ability to make sub-sonic cruise missile.


  • The final Development Flight Trials of Astra -Beyond Visual Range Air to Air Missile (BVRAAM) were successfully conducted over the Bay of Bengal, off the Coast of Chandipur, Odisha recently.
  • The missile has been developed by the Defence Research and Development
    Organization (DRDO) together with Indian Air Force (IAF).
  • It is an all-weather weapon’s system capable of destroying an enemy target 60 to 70 km far away. In a typical Astra engagement both the launcher and the target move at a speed in excess of 1000 kmph.
  • Built indigenously, development of ASTRA missiles will provide major business opportunities for Indian players.

Types of missile

  • Cruise Missile: A cruise missile is an unmanned self-propelled guided vehicle that sustains flight through aerodynamic lift for most of its flight path. They fly within the Earth’s atmosphere and use jet engine technology. Classification on the basis of speed
  •  Subsonic cruise missile flies at a speed lesser than that of sound. It travels at a speed of around 0.8 Mach.
  •  Supersonic cruise missile travels at a speed of around 2-3 Mach. The combination of supersonic speed and warhead mass provides high kinetic energy ensuring tremendous lethal effect.
  • Hypersonic cruise missile travels at a speed of more than 5 Mach. Many countries are working to develop hypersonic cruise missiles.
  • Ballistic Missile: A ballistic missile is a missile that has a ballistic trajectory over most of its flight path, regardless of whether or not it is a weapon-delivery vehicle.



Why in news?

  • The Indian Army has signed a MoU with the
    Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) to raise one regiment of the advanced Medium Range Surface to Air Missiles (MRSAM),

Recently tested Missiles:

  • Maitri: This is also a QRSAM being developed by DRDO with the help of France.
  • SPYDER (Surface to Air Python and Derby) missile system is a Low level QRSAM (15km range) developed by Israel’s Rafael Advanced defence system and is to be deployed on Pakistan border.


  • It is an advanced, all weather, mobile, land-based air defence system.
  • It is capable of engaging multiple aerial targets at ranges of more than 50 km.
  • The system will be jointly developed by Israel and DRDO with the involvement of private sectors and DPSUs. The system will have majority indigenous content, giving boost to the Make-in-India initiative.
  • The MRSAM is a land-based variant of the long-range surface-to-air missile (LRSAM) or Barak-8 naval air defence system, which is designed to operate from naval vessels and has range upto 100 km.
  • Barak-8 was also jointly developed with Israel


Why in news

  • Recently, India successfully test-fired it’s indigenously developed Advanced Air Defence (AAD) supersonic interceptor missile.
  • Advanced Area Defence (AAD) Interceptor Missile
  • It is an indigenously developed single stage missile powered by solid propellant.
  • The interceptor missile has a navigation system, mobile launcher, secure data link for interception, independent tracking and sophisticated radars.
  • The missile is capable of destroying incoming ballistic missile at low altitude within 30 km of the earth’s atmosphere.

Ballistic Missile Defence System

  • It is being developed by DRDO in order to develop multi-layered ballistic missile defence system to protect the country against rouge attacks.
  • India has developed a functional ‘iron dome’ Ballistic missile which comprise of Endo and Exo Atmospheric Missiles.
  • It consists of two interceptor missiles namely:
  • Prithvi Defence vehicle (PDV) missile for exo-atmospheric ranges – capable of destroying targets at a high altitude of more than 120 km
  • Advanced Area Defence (Ashwin) missile for endo-atmosphere – capable of intercepting incoming targets at an altitude of 15 to 25 kms
  • India is the fifth nation in the world to have a robust Ballistic Missile Defence system. Other countries are US, Russia, Israel and China.



Why in news?

  • The DRDO has successfully test fired indigenously developed QRSAM recently.


  • It is a canister-based high-speed and short-range weapon system
  • It is a highly mobile air defence system which can destroy multiple targets at a distance of 25 km in less than one minute.
  • It can also deceive enemy radars making it difficult to be detected
  • Considered to be a unique system in its class, the missile is expected to supplement medium range surface-to-air missile Akash.
  • It is an all-weather and all-terrain missile having electronic counter measures against all known aircraft jammers.
  • The missile uses high-energy solid propellant.


4.4.1. NETRA

Why in news?

  • Recently, for the first time mid air-to-air refuelling of the Embraer transport aircraft was carried which is mounted with NETRA.


  • Air-to-air refuelling allows the aircraft to stay
  • airborne much beyond their limits, allowing better exploitation of capabilities and boosting the force’s capabilities.


  • It is a first indigenously developed airborne early warning and control system (AEW&C), mounted on a Brazilian Embraer-145, developed by Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO).
  • AEW&C is also called eye-in-the-sky which is capable of long-range surveillance and a force multiplier.
  • India is only 4th such nation after United States, Russia and Israel that have such technology on their own.
  • Currently Indian Air Force using 3 Israeli
  • Phalcon AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System) which are mounted on Russian IL-76 heavy-lift planes. These Phalcon AWACS has a range of 400 kms and 360-degre coverage.

Important features of NETRA are:

  • Range of 200 kms (Capability to detect aerial threats from incoming aircraft and missiles).
  • 240 degrees coverage (simultaneously scan the area on both sides of aircraft)
  • State of the art active electronically scanned radar and Secondary surveillance radar.
  • Electronic and communication counter measures.
  • Line of sight and beyond line of sight data link.
  • Voice communication system and self-protection suit.


Why in news?

Recently DRDO successfully carried out test flight of Rustom-2 drone.

More about Rustom-2

  • Rustom-2 is medium-altitude long-endurance drone (MALE) designed and developed by Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) of the DRDO, Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd and Bharat Electronics.
  • It can fly up to an altitude of 22,000 feet and has endurance of over 20 hours.
  • It can carry variety of payloads like Electronic Intelligence (ELINT), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Communication Intelligence (COMINT) and Situational Awareness Payloads (SAP) for performing missions even during the night.
  • It will be used by all three services of Indian armed forces, primarily for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) operations.
  • Rustom 2 can fly missions on manual as well as autonomous modes.

More about Drones

  • Recently, Director General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) released the Civil Aviation Requirements (CAR) for the operation of civil Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) or Drones in India.


  • UAVs: It operates without a human pilot. UAVs are commonly used in both the military and police forces in situations where the risk of sending a human piloted aircraft is unacceptable, or the situation makes using a manned aircraft impractical.


  • DGCA in October 2014 restricted the use of drones and unmanned aircraft system by civilians.
  • Current aircraft rules also do not cover use of drones for civilian purposes as well as their sale and purchase.
  • Unregulated usage poses Security Threat and chances for air collisions and accidents.

Directorate General of Civil Aviation

  • DGCA is the civil aviation regulatory body responsible for regulating of air transport services to/from and within India.

Key Functions

  • Registration of civil aircraft and licensing of pilots and aircraft maintenance engineers.
  • Coordination with ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization).
  • Safety oversight and surveillance.
  • Advising government in matters of air transport including those related to bilateral air services agreements.

Various Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in India

  • Nishant: It was designed for battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance and has been designed and developed by ADE.
  • Panchi: It wheeled version of UAV Nishant and has been designed and developed by ADE.
  • Lakshya: It is a reusable aerial target system.
  • Daksh: It is a land based drone used for bomb disposal developed by DRDO.

Provision under Regulation

  • Definition: A remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) is defined as an unmanned aircraft which is piloted from a remote station.
  • The DCGA has divided the drones into five categories based on their Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW)
  • Nano: Less than or equal to 250 grams.
  • Micro: Greater than 250 grams and less than or equal to 2 kg.
  • Mini: Greater than 2 kg and less than or equal to 25 kg.
  • Small: Greater than 25 kg and less than or equal to 150 kg.
  • Large: Greater than 150 kg.
  • A Unique Identification Number and radio frequency tags would be a mandatory requirement for operating drones.
  • Exemption: Drones in nano category-weighing up to 250 grams- and those operated by government agencies would not require any permit.
    Pilot: The remote pilot for any drone must be at least 18 years old and has to go through a prescribed training process.
  • No Drone Zones:
  • Drones are barred from being operated within 5km of an airport, within 50km from international border and beyond 500 metre (horizontal) into sea along the coastline.
  •  Drones would not be allowed within 5 km radius from Vijay Chowk (in national capital), over eco-sensitive zones like national parks and wildlife sanctuaries and from a mobile platform such as a moving vehicle, ship or aircraft.
  •  Due permissions would also be needed when drones are being used over densely populated areas or near an area affecting public safety or where emergency operations are underway.
  • Penalties: Any violation of rules shall attract penal actions including penalties under the Indian Penal Code

Advantage of UAVs

  • Damage assessment of property after natural calamities, use by Armed Forces for tactical purposes at border, Surveillance and Crowd Management, Monitoring of wildlife, SENSAGRI (SENsor based Smart AGRIculture), many e-mmorce use it for delivering products.


Why in news?

  • Muntra, the first unmanned, remotely operated tank of India has been made by DRDO (the Defence Research and Development Organisation) for surveillance missions, mine detection and reconnaissance in areas with nuclear and biological threat. It can be used in Naxal-hit areas as well.
  • Features: The tank has radar, an integrated camera along with laser range finder which can spy on a ground target 15km away. The tank is tested at Mahajan field firing range in Rajasthan under dusty desert condition.
  • Other details: Indian defence Ministry has relaunched an ambitious Future Combat Ready Vehicles (FCRV) program to find a cutting edge tank for the mid-2020s and beyond.

Types of Muntra tanks:

  • Muntra S: For surveillance mission
  • Muntra M: For detecting mines
  • Muntra N: For operation in areas where there is nuclear or bio-weapon risks.
  • Tanks used by India: T-72M, T-90S, Arjun Mark 1, Arjun Mark-2 etc.



Why in news?

  • Indian Navy recently launched Scorpene-class (conventional diesel electric attack submarines) submarine INS Karanj.

More about INS Karanj

  • INS Karanj is the third of the six Scorpene-class submarines under the Project 75 programme of Indian navy
  • The first one, INS Kalvari (named after the tiger shark) was commissioned on December 2017.The second one, INS Khandari is undergoing sea trials. Remaining three submarines Vela, Vagir and Vagsheer are in various stages of outfitting.
  • The Scorpene submarines can undertake various missions such as anti-surface warfare,anti-submarine warfare, intelligence gathering, mine laying and area surveillance.


Why in news?

  • Aridhaman the second Arihant-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine was slated to be launched and inducted into services.

INS Arihant

  • It is India’s first indigenously built nuclear powered submarine which was built under the Advanced Technology Vessel project
  • It is based on the design of the Russian Project 971 Akula I-class nuclear powered attack submarine.

More about INS Aridhaman

  •  It is nuclear-power ballistic missile submarine indigenously built under the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) project at Visakhapatnam.
  • It is powered by a pressurized water reactor After the induction of INS Arihant and INS
  • Aridhaman India has become 6th country in the world to have nuclear powered submarine after UNSC permanent members – USA, UK, China, Russia and France.

4.5.3. PROJECT 28

Why in news?

  • Recently INS Kiltan, Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) stealth corvette was commissioned into the Indian Navy.


  • INS Kiltan is third of the four kamorta class anti-submarine warfare corvettes being built under naval modernisation project P-28.
  • INS Kamorta and INS Kadmatt which were two ships constructed earlier under the same project. The fourth ship INS kavaratti is still under construction.
  • It is India’s first major warship to have a superstructure of carbon fibre composite material resulting in improved stealth features, lower top weight and maintenance costs.
  • It was designed by Directorate of Naval Design and constructed by Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited, Kolkata.


Why in news?

  • The Indian Navy’s first indigenously built Floating Dock (FDN-2) was launched at shipyard in Kattupalli, Near Ennore port, Chennai.

About the dock

  • The floating dock is 185 metres long and 40 metres wide. It will enable docking of all kinds of vessels.
  • This will include naval ships and submarines of up to 8,000 tonnes displacement.
  • It would include draughts of up to seven metres, during both day and night.
  • FDN-2 will be based in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


  • Two diesel engine driven NOPVs named Shachi and Shruti were launched at Pipavav, Gujarat.
  • These ships are part of 5 ship project being built by Reliance Defence and Engineering Limited.
  • The NOPVs would increase the ocean surveillance and patrolling capabilities of the Indian Navy.



Why in News?

  • Recently Border Security Force (BSF) personnel detected a fifth (since 2012) cross-border tunnel in the forest area of Jammu which has intensified the demand for CIBMS.


  • The trigger for implementing the CIBMS was the Pathankot terrorist attack followed by warning by the Punjab and Haryana High Court. Following this the MHA sanctioned the implementation of CIBMS through two pilot projects (stretches in Jammu sector of India-Pakistan Border).
  • Further a committee under Madhukar Gupta (2016), was explicitly tasked to recommend technological solutions to secure the
    international border.

What is CIBMS?

  • It is a robust and integrated system that is capable of addressing the gaps in the present system of border security by seamlessly integrating human resources, weapons, and high-tech surveillance equipment.
  • It has three main components:
  • New high-tech surveillance devices such as sensors, detectors, cameras, etc. as well as existing equipment for round-the-clock surveillance of the international border.
  • An efficient and dedicated communication network including fiber optic cables and satellite communication for transmitting data gathered; and
  • A command and control centre to which the data will be transmitted providing a composite picture of the international border.
  • This would improve prevention of infiltration and smuggling attempts, cover gaps at rivers and nullahs, providing all-round security in even adverse climatic conditions & give relief to BSF troops.


Why in news?

  • Recently, 25 jawans lost their lives in the Sukma attack, the deadliest Naxal strike on the CRPF in years. In answer to Naxal problem, Ministry of Home Affairs launched Operation ‘SAMADHAN’
  • Operation Samadhan involves Smart leadership, Aggressive strategy, Motivation and Training, Actionable intelligence, Dashbord based key performance indicators, Harnessing technology and No access to funds to LWE groups.


Why in News?

  • Recently, Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI), announced introduction of a two-tier security system in the wake of alleged data breaches of Aadhaar.

Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI)

  • It is a statutory authority established under the provisions of the Aadhaar Act, 2016.
  • It works under the aegis of Ministry of Electronics and Information technology.
  • It is responsible for Aadhaar enrolment, authentication, developing the policy, procedure and system for issuing Aadhaar numbers etc.
  • It consists of a Chairperson appointed on part-time basis, two part-time Members and a Chief Executive Officer who shall be the Member-Secretary of the Authority.

Proposed two tier security system

  • Virtual IDs
  •  It is a 16-digit temporary number (like an OTP) which can only generated by Aadhaar holders in place of Aadhaar numbers to validate their identity.
  •  It can be generated through UIDAI’s portal, enrolment centres, Aadhaar’s mobile app, etc.
  • There will be only one active and valid VID for an Aadhaar number at any given time.
  • Limited KYC: It involves giving an agency-specific UID ‘token’ for e-KYC authentication. It eliminates the need of many agencies storing Aadhaar numbers while still enabling their own paperless KYC.
  •  For better safety of Aadhar Data, all Authentication User Agencies (AUAs) will be divided into two categories:
    o Global AUAs – Agencies whose services,
  • by law, require them to store the Aadhaar number will be qualified as Global AUAs and will enjoy access to full demographic details of an individual along with the ability to store Aadhaar numbers within their system.
  • Local AUAs – They will neither get access to full KYC, nor can they store the Aadhaar number on their systems. Instead, they will get a tokenised number issued by UIDAI to identify their customers. UID token will be a unique 72-character alphanumeric string for each Aadhaar number for each particular AUA entity.

What are AUAs?

  • It is an entity that provides Aadhaar Enabled Services to Aadhaar number holders, uses the authentication as facilitated by the Authentication Service Agency (ASA).
  • An AUA may be a government, public, or private legal agency registered in India that uses UIDAI’s
  • Aadhaar authentication services and sends authentication requests to enable its services or business functions.
  • ASAs are entities that have secure leased line connectivity with the CIDR and transmit authentication requests to CIDR on behalf of one or more AUAs
  • Security features in physical Aadhaar card – There is no hologram or digital signature but rather a QR code, which is just an image representation of a text. Thus, in its physical form, its coloured photocopy may look as good as the original


Why in News?

• Recently, the Home Ministry issued a notification listing National Technical Research Organization (NTRO) under the Intelligence Organizations (Restriction of Rights) Act, 1985.

Intelligence Organizations (Restriction of Rights) Act 1985

  • The aim of this act is to prevent leakage of information by intelligence agencies.
  • It prevents employees of a notified agency – o From forming unions/associations.
  •  Puts restrictions on the employee’s freedom
    of speech
  •  Bars any communication with the press or publishing a book or other document without the permission of the head of the intelligence organization.

About NTRO

  • The NTRO was created after the 1999 Kargil conflict as a dedicated technical intelligence agency. It was finally constituted in 2004.
  • NTRO reports to the Prime Minister’s Office
  • (PMO) and the National Security Advisor (NSA).
  • It functions under the National Security Adviser.
  •  It also includes National Institute of Cryptology Research and Development.

Various Intelligence Agencies in India

1. Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) –

  •  It was founded in 1968 to counter Chinese influence but over time its focus has shifted to Pakistan.
  • It is India’s premier external intelligence agency.
  • It reports directly to the Prime Minister and not to the Department of Defence.
  •  It’s primary objectives include
  • Monitoring the political and military developments in adjoining countries, which have direct bearing on India’s national security and in the formulation of its foreign policy.
  •  Seeking the control and limitation of the supply of military hardware to Pakistan, mostly from European countries, the United States, and China.

2. Intelligence Bureau

  • It was founded by the Britishers as an intelligence agency for both external and domestic intelligence gathering. After the 1962 war with China, the external intelligence function was taken away from it.
  • It also executes counter intelligence and counter terrorism tasks.

3. Directorate of Revenue Intelligence

  •  It is the apex anti-smuggling agency of India, working under the Central Board of Excise Customs, Ministry of Finance.
  •  It is tasked with detecting and curbing smuggling of contraband, including drug trafficking and illicit international trade in wildlife and environmentally sensitive items.
  •  It also combats commercial frauds related to international trade and Custom duty evasion.

4. Narcotics Control Bureau

  • It was formed in 1986 as per a provision of The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985. It is an intelligence agency and coordinates actions of concerned authorities over trade of illicit narcotics from the country.


  • Government has recently notified the merger of National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) with Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPRD).
  • NCRB is an attached office to the Ministry of Home Affairs which was established in 1986 to empower Indian Police with the power of information Technology solutions and criminal intelligence to enforce the law effectively.
  • BPRD was established in 1970 as a national police organisation to study, research and develop on subjects and issues related to policing.
  • Reason for merger
  •  boost crime data collection and research efforts
  •  improve administrative efficiency
  • optimum utilisation of resources
  •  Better outcome to crime data collected by NCRB and research work done by BPRD.


Why in news?

  •  Recently, three new formations under Defence Ministry namely Defence Cyber Agency, Defence Space Agency and a Special Operations Division have been proposed.
  • Joint military Doctrine of the Indian armed forces, 2017 and Naresh Chandra Task Force 2012 had also underscored the need to prepare the defence forces for the “emerging triad” of space, cyberspace and special operations.


  • The three organisations will be developed as Tri-service organisations to promote integration and jointness among military, air-force and navy in respective domains.
  • Defence Cyber Agency (DCA) will work in close co-ordination with the National Cyber Security Advisor. It will focus on non-civilian cyber issues, including safeguarding critical infrastructure.
  • Defence Space Agency (DSA) will work closely with ISRO and DRDO for better utilisation and integration of space resources including information from surveillance satellites.
  • Special Operations Division (SOD) will have central pool of personnel from the Special Forces of the Army (Para commandoes), Navy
  • (Marcos) and IAF (Garud’s). They will be equipped and trained together for unconventional warfare capabilities.


Why in news?

  • The National Authority for Chemical Weapons Convention (NACWC) has been awarded ISO 9001:2008, Certificate which is a recognition of successful performance of the authority with enhanced administrative efficiency and accountability.
  • The ISO 9001 Certificate makes the NACWC the first among all 188 members nations of OPCW to attain this distinction. It is also the first Government of India department to have qualified for ISO 9001:2008 certification.

Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

  • It is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
  • The Convention opened for signature in Paris on 13 January 1993. It is administered by the
  • Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), an intergovernmental organization based in The Hague, Netherlands.
  •  Each State Party is obliged to designate or establish a representative called National Authority to ensure that the Convention is implemented effectively.
  • The main responsibilities of the National Authority are:
  •  Escorting OPCW inspections of relevant industrial or military sites; Submitting initial and annual declarations;
  • Assisting and protecting those States Parties which are threatened by, or have suffered chemical attack; and,
  •  Fostering the peaceful uses of chemistry.


  • NACWC was set up as an office of Cabinet Secretariat to fulfil obligations under Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).
  • It was established under Chemical Weapons Convention Act, 2000. It acts as national focal point for effective bond with Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and other State Parties.

What is a chemical weapon?

  •  A chemical weapon is any toxic chemical that can cause death, injury, incapacitation, and sensory irritation, deployed via a delivery system, such as an artillery shell, rocket, or ballistic missile.
  • Chemical weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction and their use in armed conflict is a violation of international law.
  • Primary forms of chemical weapons include nerve agents, blister agents, choking agents, and blood agents.
  • Choking Agents: chlorine and phosgene,
  • Blister Agents (Or Vesicants): mustard and lewisite,
  • Blood Agents: hydrogen cyanide,
  • Nerve Agents: sarin, soman, VX.

About VX nerve agent

  • It acts on the nervous system (hence the name nerve agents), typically the nerves that control breathing.
  • It is a clear, tasteless and colourless liquid with a consistency something like engine oil.
  • Just one drop containing 10 milligrams of VX, absorbed through the skin, is enough to cause “fatal disruption of the nervous system
  • It inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which overstimulates the
    tissues, resulting in respiratory paralysis and death.
  • The VX nerve agent is banned under international law because it’s a chemical weapon as defined in the Chemical Weapons Conventions.


Why in news?

  • US recently dropped GBU-43 Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb on Afghanistan.

More on news

  • GBU-43 Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB), popularly called the Mother of All Bombs has been developed by United States military. It is a thermobaric bomb
  • Thermobaric bomb uses oxygen from the surrounding air to generate an intense, high-temperature blast wave that packs an incredible amount of energy into a small, localised area.
  • It differs from conventional bombs in terms of weight of explosives packed in it. For example: GBU-43 packs in 8,000 kg of explosives. In comparison, the average weight of most deployed conventional bombs which is roughly 250kg.
  • Russia also possesses thermobaric bomb, popularly known as Father of All Bombs which is four times more powerful than the U.S. weapon.

Other types of bombs

Hydrogen Bombs

  • Hydrogen bombs are thermonuclear weapons which employs fusion of isotopes of hydrogen.
  • The result is greatly increased explosive power when compared to single-stage fission weapons.

Salient Features of Hydrogen Bomb:

  • The energy released in a Hydrogen bomb is several magnitudes higher than an Atom bomb.
  • A fusion bomb is more sophisticated and difficult to make, since it requires a much higher temperature — in the order of millions of degrees centigrade. So a fission is carried out first to produce more energy, which is then used to initiate fusion.
  • It is easier to make Hydrogen bombs in small size, so it is easier to place them in missiles.
  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki both were atomic bombs and till date Hydrogen bombs have never been used in war.

Atomic Bombs

  • Atomic bombs differ from hydrogen bombs primarily due to the fact they are fission bombs. It develops its energy from the fission of heavy, unstable nuclei.
  • Radioactive forms of elements such as plutonium and uranium are especially susceptible to fission
  • In fission reactions, heavy nucleus breaks up when it is bombarded with neutrons. The reaction that follows also releases neutrons along with two lighter nuclei. These 2 nuclei are then bombarded with the neutrons generate making it a chain reaction.


  • Laws is world’s first laser weapon, launched by US
  • It releases photons at the speed of light silently hitting their target and burning it to a temperature of thousands of degrees.
  • It is completely invisible
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