Prelims level : Economy Mains level : GS-III Technology, Environment, Economic Development
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  • What are Debt Instruments?
  • They are either paper or electronic obligations that allows the issuing party to raise funds by promising to repay the lender in the terms of the contract.
  • E.g. Bonds, debentures, certificates etc.

Dwindling automobile sales market in India Since Nov 2018:

  • The major reason for such a downfall in the market is the reduction in the private consumption expenditure.

What is Private Consumption Expenditure?

  • It is defined as the value of the consumption goods and services acquired and consumed by households.
  • It is influenced by the following factors: Inflation or price rise
  • Increase in taxes which may reduce personal savings. Unemployment
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