India’s Foreign Policy

Prelims level : International Relations Mains level : GS-II International Relations | Effect of Policies & Politics of Developed & Developing Countries on India’s Interests
No Set Found with this ID

Why in News?

  • 2022 was a challenging year for geopolitics and diplomacy, particularly in the wake of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in February.
  • Given its historical ties with Russia and its strategic alliances with the United States and Europe, India’s choices become increasingly challenging.
  • The Indian government also continues to take criticism over its China policy and the stand-off at the Line of Actual Control.

India’s stand on the Ukraine war:

  • India called for “a peaceful resolution of the situation through sustained diplomatic efforts for long-term peace and stability in the region and beyond”.
  • India’s position is largely rooted in neutrality and has adapted itself to the post-2014 status quo on Ukraine.
  • India also refused to accept western sanctions and increased its military and oil trade with Russia, and sought rupee-based payment mechanisms to facilitate them.
  • Guided by its national interests, India chose to abstain several resolutions at the UNSC, UNGA, IAEA, Human Rights Commission and other multilateral platforms seeking to censure Russia for the invasion and humanitarian crisis.

India’s ties with its neighbours:

  • As part of ‘Neighbourhood First’ policy, India has extended multi-pronged assistance to Sri Lanka over the last 12 months to help the country tide over its worst economic and humanitarian crisis.
  • India also entered regional trade and energy agreements with Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal that could see a South Asian energy grid emerge. 
  • India has also strengthened ties with Central Asian countries on connectivity. 
  • India is also engaging with Taliban by providing humanitarian assistance, exploring a joint counterterrorism effort with other partners.
  • The government also kept channels open with Myanmar Junta by sending the foreign secretary to Nay Pyi Taw. 
  • In December 2022, India also abstained on a UNSC vote calling for Myanmar to end violence and release political prisoners.

Progress on LAC stand-off:

  • India-China tensions at the Line of Actual Control remained high. A crisis in the Indo-China border began in April 2020, with PLA transgressions in Ladakh, in the western sector of the boundary.
  • Indian and Chinese troops faced off at the Yangtse area near Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh in the eastern sector of the Indo-China border on December 09, 2022.
  • India is due to host Mr. Xi twice in 2023, at the G-20 and SCO summits, which could create opportunities for talks to end the stand-off.

Other highlights:

  • India assumed the presidency of the G20 grouping on December 1,2022. The 18th G20 summit will be held in India in 2023. 
  • At the G-20, India is expected to highlight climate change transitions, “women-led” development and multilateral reform, among other key issues
  • India also took over as chair of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and it will host the next summit as the chairman of the organisation in 2023.
  • In 2022, India signed trade agreements with the UAE and Australia.
Share Socially