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  • Recently, the pneumococcalvaccine developed by Serum Institute of India, Pune.
  • It has been pre-qualified by WHO making it all set to be cheaper and more effective than the one that is currently in use.

Basics of Vaccines:

  • The pneumococcal vaccine developed by Serum Institute is a conjugate vaccine.
  • Whenever our body is encountered with microbial infection, the immune system responds by releasing antibodies to fight these microbes.
  • Further if the body encounters the same microbial infection in the future, the immune system immediately responds making the microbe ineffective providing protection for infections.
  • Thus, vaccines are used to generate immune responses from the body in order to fight infections.


  • Pneumococcal vaccine has been introduced as a part of Universal Immunisation Programme since 2017.
  • Currently in India pneumococcal vaccine regimen is 2 primary doses at 6 and 10 weeks and a booster dose at nine months of age.
  • According to a report by UNICEF, India ranks second, after Nigeria, in incidence of child pneumonia with 1.27 lakh cases in 2018

About Pneumonia:

  • It is a respiratory infection in which alveoli, instead of air, is filled with pus and fluid making it difficult to breath and thus limiting oxygen intake.
  • It is the largest cause of mortality in children due to infectious disease.
  • About 15% of all deaths of under-5 children occur due to Pneumonia.
  • It is an infectious disease that can be caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi.
  • Most common infectious agent that causes Pneumonia in children is a bacterium known as Streptococcus pneumonia.
  • Malnutrition is the leading cause for pneumonia. Other illnesses, such as HIV infections and measles also increase the risk of contracting pneumonia.
  • Indoor air pollution caused by cooking and heating with biomass fuels, and Parental smoking.

About Prevention and Treatment:

  • Immunization of rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccine
  • Adequate nutrition including ORS, Vitamin A and Zinc supplementation
  • Exclusive breastfeeding for 1st 6 months and complimentary feeding thereafter
  • Tackling indoor air pollution and Administering Antibiotics
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