1.Vayoshreshtha Samman Award

Why in News?
  • President of India conferred the “Vayoshreshtha Samman-2019” on the eminent senior citizens and institutions in recognition of their services towards the cause of the elderly persons on the occasion of ‘International Day of older Persons’
About Vayoshreshtha Samman Award:
  • It is a scheme of awards which was instituted by Union Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment and gradually upgraded to status of National Awards.
  • The Awards are intended:
    • To show case Government’s concern for senior citizens and its commitment towards them with the aim of strengthening their legitimate place in society.
    • To provide an opportunity to younger generation to understand contribution of elderly in building of society and Nation.
  • It is awarded to:
    • Institutions which are involved in providing distinguished service for the cause of elderly persons (especially indigent senior citizens).
    • Eminent senior citizens in recognition of their service and achievements.
    • Individuals from any part of the country.
  • The recipients are drawn from diverse fields and nominations are invited from Governmental and Non-Governmental Agencies.
  • Notable Awardees:
    • Tamil Nadu Government
    • Municipal Council of Unhel, Ujjain district, Madhya Pradesh
    • Gandhi bhavan International, an NGO in Kerala.

2.D28 Iceberg

Why in News?
  • A more than 1,500 sq.km. D28 iceberg recently broke off Antarctica.
  • The iceberg, dubbed D28, broke away from the Amery ice shelf according to observationsfrom European and American satellites.
  • It is about 210 metres thick and contains 315 billion tonnes of ice.
  • The east of Antarctica — where D28 broke off — is different from the west of the continent and Greenland, which are rapidly warming due to climate change.
  • Scientists found that the event is part of a normal cycle and is not related to climate change.
  • The figures are huge, but iceberg production is part of the normal cycle of ice shelves, which are an extension of the ice cap.
  • Ice shelves have to lose mass because they gain mass.
  • The gain in mass comes from snow falling on the continent and glaciers that move slowly toward the shore.

3.NH – 766

Why in News :

Kerala’s Wayanad district has witnessed a series of protests against a ban on night traffic on the forest stretch of NH 766

  • NH 766 is a key highway between Karnataka and Kerala that passes through the Bandipur Tiger Reserve in Karnataka.
  • The Kollegal-Mysuru-Kozhikode road has existed for 200 years and remains a major link. It was declared a national highway in 1989, then named NH 212, and later renamed NH 766.
  • NH 766 is used by transporters of essential provisions from Karnataka to Kerala, and by commuters from Kerala to Bengaluru for want of good rail connectivity.


Why in News:
  • With Diwali approaching, Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation (Peso) handed tips on safe practices of storing and lighting fireworks in a bid to keep the festival season free from untoward incidents.
About Peso:
  • It is the apex department to control and administer manufacture, storage, transport and handling of explosives, petroleum, compressed gases and other hazardous substances in India.
  • It functions under the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP), Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  • HQ at Nagpur
  • It administers the responsibilities delegated under the Explosives Act 1884 and Petroleum Act 1934.
  • Procurement of raw materials for fireworks does not come under the purview of the Explosives Act.
  • The PESO has been testing samples of crackers only for adherence to the sound limit of 125 decibels at a distance of four metres.         

5.Lithium Ion Batteries

Why in News:
  • Lithium-ion batteries, the power source for all-electric vehicles, are flammable, and Cutting off power in an accident is key in Evs.
Lithium :
  • Lithium, it’s the lightest metal on the periodic table, and the one most willing to donate its electrons (The Most Powerful Reducing Agent).
  • From portable electronics like the smartphone to high performance electric cars like the Tesla Model S, lithium ion batteries are currently the most promising chemistry on the market for meeting our renewable energy storage needs.
About Li-ion Battery:
  • A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications.
  • Advantages of Lithium Ion batteries:
    • High energy density – potential for yet higher capacities.
    • Does not need prolonged priming when new. One regular charge is all that’s needed.
    • Relatively low self-discharge – self-discharge is less than half that of nickel-based batteries.
    • Low Maintenance – no periodic discharge is needed; there is no memory.
    • Specialty cells can provide very high current to applications such as power tools.

6.Lal Bahadur Shastri

Why in News?
  • India has recently celebrated 115 th birth anniversary of renowned leader and freedom fighter, LalBahadur Shastri.
About Lal Bahadur Shastri:
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on 2nd October, 1904 at Mughalsarai, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
  • He was given the title “Shastri” meaning “Scholar” by Vidya Peeth as a part of his bachelor’s degree award.
  • He introduced a slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan” and played a pivotal role in shaping India’s future.
  • He became a life member of the Servants of the People Society (Lok Sevak Mandal), founded by Lala Lajpat Rai. There he started to work for the upliftment of backward classes, and later he became the President of that Society.
  • He participated in the non-cooperation movement and the Salt Satyagraha.
  • He was the second Prime Minister of Independent India.
  • In 1961, he was appointed as Home Minister, and he appointed the Committee on Prevention of Corruption. He created the famous “Shastri Formula” which consisted of the language agitations in Assam and Punjab.
  • He promoted the White Revolution, a national campaign to increase milk production. He also promoted the Green Revolution, to increase the food production in India.
  • In 1964, he signed an agreement with the Sri Lankan Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike, in concern with the status of Indian Tamils in Ceylon. This agreement is known as Srimavo-Shastri Pact.
  • He was awarded the Bharat Ratna the India’s highest civilian award posthumously in 1966.
  • He signed Tashkent Declaration on 10 January, 1966 with the paksitan President, Muhammad Ayub Khan to end the 1965 war.
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