Prelim Snippets 03-12-2019

1. Jeholbaatar kielanae

Why in News?
  • Researchers have unearthed well-preserved middle ear bones from a new species of an extinct rodent that lived 145-66 million years ago in North-Eastern China.
  • This finding may lead to better understanding of the evolution of hearing.
Jeholbaatar Kielanae:
  • The study looked at fossils of the extinct rodent-like mammal — Jeholbaatar kielanae — at Jehol Biota of China, and noted that these animals had a middle ear that is distinct from those of its relatives.
  • The evolution of the rodent’s bones and muscles involved in hearing may have been driven by specialisation for hearing.
  • The fossil clues provide solid evidence of the morphology and formation of the inner ear bones, which are fully detached from the lower jaw.
  • In these extinct mammals, the evolution of the middle ear may have probably been triggered by functional constraints on the bones and muscles involved in feeding.

2.Inner Line Permit (ILP)

Why in the News?
  • The Union Home Minister, assured the civil society groups that the Citizenship Bill would provide protection to such regions and states where the Inner Line Permit (ILP) is applicable.
  • The autonomous administration has been granted under the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution.
About Inner Line Permit:
  • It is an official travel document issued by the Government of India to grant inward travel of an Indian citizen into a protected area for a limited period.
  • It is obligatory for Indians residing outside those states to obtain permission prior to entering the protected areas.
  • It is currently operational in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland.
  • It is issued by the state government concerned.
  • It can be issued for travel purposes solely.
  • The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill aims to make it easier forNon-Muslim Refugees from Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Afghanistan to obtain Indian citizenship.
  • If it is implemented with provisions for excluding from its ambit the states under the ILP regime, it means that beneficiaries under CAB will become Indian citizens but will not be able to settle in these three statesthe same restriction applies to existing Indian citizens.
  • Now, on these lines, even Assam, Tripura and Meghalaya are demanding the implementation of ILP system.
Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act, 1873:
  • Under this Act, the British colonial government framed regulations restricting the entry and regulating the stay of outsiders in designated areas.
  • This is to protect the British own commercial interests by preventing Indians from trading within these regions.

3. Kulasekarapattinam

Why in News?
  • Recently central government has acquired land for India’s third rocket launch pad at Kulasekarapattinam in Tamil Nadu.
  • Kulasekarapattinam in a town in Thoothukudi district of Tamil Nadu.
  • Indian Space Research Organisation has currently two launch pads at Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh and Thumba in Kerala.

4.Operating Ratio

Why in News?
  • Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India said in its report on railway expenditure that the Operating ratio of Indian Railways in 2017-18 is worst in the last 10 years.
  • Its 95% profit from freight is used to compensate loss on passenger and coaching operations.
  • The decline of surplus revenue for Railways from 2016-17 is 66.1 %.
Recommendation of CAG:
  • It says to augment their internal revenue so that dependence on Gross and Extra Budgetary Resources is contained.
  • Under Provisioning for Depreciation is resulting in piling up of throw forward of words concerning renewal of over aged assets
  • To Avoid creating new funds without any “Justifiable Reason”
Operating Ratio:
  • It is measure of expenditure against revenue, that shows how efficiently the Indian Railways (IR) is operating and how healthy its finances are.
  • The ratio of Indian Railway 2017-18 is 98.44%.
  • It means that the Railways spent Rs.98.44 to earn Rs.100.
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