1. Indian Data Relay Satellite System (IDRSS)

  • Recently, the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) will be putting up a new satellite series (type of satellite constellation) named ‘Indian Data Relay Satellite System (IDRSS)’
About IDRSS:
  • ISRO plans to send two IDRSS satellites in the Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) in order to provide continuous connectivity with the Indian satellites in the Low-Earth Orbit (LEO).
  • At present without data relay satellites, spacecraft would not be visible all the time even if ISRO create a number of ground stations or hire ground stations globally. IDRSS is a set of satellites that will track, send and receive information from other Indian satellites.
  • India’s first manned space mission, Gaganyaan in 2022 will be the first beneficiary of the IDRSS satellites. The project will aid the crew of Gaganyaan mission helping them in maintaining contact with the mission control throughout.
  • It will be similar to the American Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System, European Data Relay and the Luch Satellite Data Relay Network of Russia
  • The IDRSS satellites would be launched on GSLV launcher and would be around 2,000 Kg as informed by Chairman of ISRO.


2.Project ‘NETRA’

  • Recently, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has inked a pact with Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) to pave the way for collaboration in establishing optical telescope facilities under Project ‘NETRA’for tracking space objects.
About Project NETRA (Network for space object Tracking and Analysis):
  • It will give India its own capability in space situational awareness(SSA) like the other space powers — which is used to ‘predict’ threats from debris to Indian satellites.
  • The space agency says our SSA will first be for low-earth orbits or LEO which have remote-sensing spacecraft.
  • Its eventual goal is to capture the GEO, or geostationary orbit, scene at 36,000 km where communication satellites operate.
  • They can spot, track and catalogue objects as small as 10 cm, up to a range of 3,400 km and equal to a space orbit of around 2,000 km among other objects.
  • Its effort would make India a part of international efforts towards tracking, warning about and mitigating space debris.
  • Under NETRA the ISRO plans to put up many observational facilities: connected radars, telescopes; data processing units and a control centre.

3. Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD)

Why in News?
  • Recently, The Madras High Court has directed the Centre to consider providing medical care to economically poor patients suffering from the rare Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD).
About Lysosomal Storage Disorders (LSD):
  • It is a disease which is caused by the lack of enzymes in the Lysosomes of a cell. The enzyme present in the lysosomes play an important role in eliminating all unwanted substances present in a cell of the human body.
  • It is a metabolic disorder, which are characterized by an accumulation of macromolecules.  These macromolecules include toxic materials, undigested particles of the cell, etc. These macromolecules get piled up because of the lack of enzymes in the Lysosome.
  • It can affect many parts of the body including the circulatory system, the central nervous system, digestive system, skin, liver, eyes, bones, spleen, kidneys, etc.
  • Its symptoms are organ enlargement including heart, spleen, and liver. Other symptoms include Skin Rashes, Burning pains in hand and feet, Lung dysfunction etc.
  • It is defined as subcellular, spherical organelles, consisting of hydrolytic enzymes. Its main function is to protect the cell from being digested as it surrounds the cell membrane. It is also called digestive bags or suicidal bags.

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