Prelim Snippets 17-07-2019


  • Context: Akash, a surface to air missile, manufactured by BDL to meet the requirement of the armed forces
About AKASH Missile:
  • It is a Medium-Range Mobile surface-to-air missile defense system developed by the DRDO and produced by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) for Missile Systems
  • The missile system can target aircraft up to 30 km away, at altitudes up to 18,000 m.
  • It flies at supersonic speed, reaching around Mach 2.5.
  • It can reach an altitude of 18 km and can be fired from both tracked and wheeled platforms
  • It has the capability to “neutralise aerial targets like fighter jets, cruise missiles and air-to-surface missiles” as well as ballistic missiles.
  • It is in operational service with the Indian Army and the Indian Air Force.
  • The missile is guided by a phased array fire control radar called ‘Rajendra’ which is termed as Battery Level Radar (BLR) with a tracking range of about 60 km.


  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has formulated a Scheme ‘Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM)’
About KUSUM:
  • The proposed scheme provides for:
  • Installation of grid-connected solar power plants each of Capacity up to 2 MW in the rural areas
  • Installation of standalone off-grid solar water pumps to fulfil irrigation needs of farmers not connected to grid; and
  • Solarisation of existing grid-connected agriculture pumps to make farmers independent of grid supply and also enable them to sell surplus solar power generated to DISCOM and get extra income.


  • Context: Over 300 centrally protected monuments and sites, including World Heritage Sites, across the country are “under encroachment”
About Ellora Caves:
  • It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra.
  • It is one of the largest rock-cut monastery temple cave complexes in the world, featuring Buddhist, Hindu and Jain monuments, and artwork, dating from the 600–1000 CE period.
  • Cave 16: in particular, features the largest single monolithic rock excavation in the world, the Kailasa temple, a chariot shaped monument dedicated to Shiva is being built by Krishna I
  • Unlike other temples at the site, which were first delved horizontally into the rock face, the Kailasa complex was excavated downward from a basaltic slope and is therefore largely exposed to sunlight.
  • Cave 10: The Vishvakarma cave has carvings of Hindu and Buddhist figures as well as a lively scene of dancing dwarfs.
  • Cave 32: Notable among the Jain temples, which includes fine carvings of lotus flowers and other elaborate ornaments.
  • Each year the caves attract large crowds of religious pilgrims and tourists.
  • The annual Ellora Festival of Classical Dance and Music is held there in the third week of March.


  • Context: In a sign of stress widening across India’s credit market, Suzlon Energy has defaulted on redemption of its Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds (FCCB) worth $172 million, due on Tuesday
What is FCCB?
  • Foreign Currency Convertible Bond is a type of convertible bond issued in a currency different than the Issuer’s Domestic currency.
  • It is a quasi – debt instrument which are attractive to both investors and issuers.
  • The Investors receive the safety of guaranteed payments on the bond and are also to take advantage of any large price appreciation in the company’s stock.
  • Due to the equity side of the bond. Which adds value, the coupon payments on the bond are lower for the company, there by reducing its debt-financing costs.


  • The Madhya Pradesh government has recently begun organising gram sabhas in villages to consider afresh rejected claims of Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers to forest land rights under the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006.
  • To streamline the application process and deal with the bulk of claims, the State has also launched an online application system, Van Mitra, in the Hoshangabad district on a pilot basis.
  • Applicants can upload their documents on the portal or approach Gram Rozgar Sahayak present in each gram panchayat to help them with it.
  • It’s a transparent system wherein applicants can check the status of their claim at every stage and, in case of its rejection, know the reason
  • Key facts:
  • Madhya Pradesh has 24 tribal districts, the most in the country, and the largest forest cover of 77,414 sq. km., according to the India State of Forest Report, 2017


  • Context: Russia’s Kaspersky Lab Finds Says Notorious ‘FinSpy‘ Malware Can Read Secret Chats
  • FinSpy is the latest version of spyware virus designed to track nearly every interaction on a mobile device.
  • It allows attackers to spy on all device activities and exfiltrate sensitive data such as GPS location, messages, pictures, calls and more.
  • It can work both on iOS and Android devices, can monitor activity on almost all popular messaging services, including encrypted ones, and hide their traces better than before
  • It is an extremely effective software tool for targeted surveillance that has been observed stealing information from international NGOs, governments and law enforcement organizations all over the world.


  • Context: Disputes over RPTs have been a recurring theme in India Inc. from time to time.
  • Related Party Transactions are just that — transactions that a company does with parties related to it.
  • So, if Company A buys goods or services from its director X, it counts as an RPT.
  • In RPTs, there is a risk that the related party may be favoured with terms that could harm the interests of the company’s shareholders.
  • For instance, if Company A rents office premises from Y, a relative of its director X, and pays higher than market rent in a sweetheart deal, it helps Y and indirectly X, but harms shareholders of Company A.
  • That said, RPTs need not always be bad for a company’s shareholders.
  • In many cases, RPTs make commercial and operational sense for the company.
  • So, the Companies Act has not banned RPTs but instead laid down safeguards to be followed.
  • As a result, RPTs, in general, need the approval of the company’s Board of Directors and the Audit Committee.


  • Investigation Tracking System for Sexual Offences (ITSSO) is meant for Law Enforcement Agencies in the country.
  • It is an online module available to law enforcement agencies at all levels- National, State, District and Police Station that allows State to undertake real-time monitoring and management for completion of investigation in rape cases in 2 months.
  • It leverages the existing CCTNS data base, which covers nearly 15000 police stations in the country.
  • ITSSO would greatly strengthen States ability for analytics and prognosis for timely investigation and prosecution in rape cases.
  • ITSSO is one of such measures developed by Ministry of Home Affairs towards Smart Policing.


  • Context: Speed restrictions and sound alerts mooted for protection of dolphins
  • The Ministry of Shipping plans to safeguard the population of the Ganges River Dolphin in the Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (VGDS) by restricting the speeds of vessels and blowing sirens and horns.
  • National Waterway-1: connecting Haldia to Varanasi passes through the Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (VGDS).
Steps taken by the Government:
  • Vessel speed would be restricted to 2.7 knots in VGDS area to reduce the noise generation from propeller.
  • If any aquatic mammal/dolphin is spotted, then the measures will be taken to push it away through sirens/signals.
  • Vessels to be fitted with propeller guards and dolphin deflectors to minimise dolphin accidents.
  • Using Non-Toxic Paints for painting vessels.
Key Facts:
  • The Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary (VGDS), from Sultanganj to Kahalganj on the Ganga in Bihar is the only dolphin sanctuary in the country.
  • The sanctuary is a 50 km stretch of the Ganges River from Sultanganj to Kahalgaon.
  • Designated in 1991, it is protected area for the endangered Gangetic dolphins in Asia. Once found in abundance, only a few hundred remain, of which half are found here
About Gangetic Dolphins:
  • It is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers and their tributaries in India, Bangladesh and Nepal.
  • It has been declared as the National Aquatic Animal of India.

IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesEndangered
Wildlife Protection Act, 1972Schedule-I
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)Appendix I

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