Prelim Snippets- 26.02.2020

1.International Judicial Conference

Why in News?
  • The President of India delivered the valedictory address at the International Judicial Conference being organised by the Supreme Court of India, in New Delhi.
International Judicial Conference:
  • The Conference was organized by the Supreme Court of India.
  • The theme of the Conference was ‘Judiciary and the Changing World’.
  • Important Topics of discussion at the Conference included:
    • Gender Justice,
    • Contemporary Perspectives on Protection of Constitutional Values,
    • Dynamic Interpretations of the Constitution in a Changing World,
    • Harmonization of Environment Protection vis-à-vis Sustainable Development and
    • Protection of Right to Privacy in the Internet Age
 “Just-World” Hypothesis:
  • The “Just World” fallacy is associated with the actions of bringing fair actions towards education, health, gender equality and other social issues.
  • The Conference introduced the “Just World” concept in the Judicial System of India.
  • By this it aims to take the judicial system of the country to every citizen irrespective of their gender.
  • Also, it aimed to bring upon gender equality in other crucial areas where women have still not earned their recognition, especially the areas of mining and military.

2.Yongle Blue Hole (YBH)

Why in News?
  • Carbon more than 8,000 years old has been found inside the world’s deepest blue hole — the Yongle Blue Hole (YBH).
Yongle Blue Hole (YBH):
  • The deepest known marine cavern is the Yongle blue hole, which measures roughly 300 metres from top to bottom.
  • Blue holes are marine caverns filled with water and are formed following dissolution of carbonate rocks, usually under the influence of global sea level rise or fall.
  • Its waters are mostly isolated from the surrounding ocean and receive little fresh water from rainfall, making it a rare spot to study the chemistry of oxygen-deprived marine ecosystems.
  • What distinguishes them from other aquatic caverns is that they are isolated from the ocean and don’t receive fresh rainwater.
  • They are generally circular, steep-walled and open to surface.
  • YBH has a depth of 300 metres, far deeper than the previously recorded deepest blue hole, Dean’s Blue Hole in Bahamas, which had a depth of 202 metres.
  • However, like most blue holes, it is anoxic i.e. depleted of dissolved oxygen below a certain depth. This anaerobic environment is unfavorable for most sea life.
  • Such anoxic ecosystems are considered a critical environmental and ecological issue as they have led to several mass extinctions.
  • Concentrations of carbon, usually found in deep marine holes like YBH, provide a natural laboratory to study carbon cycling and potential mechanisms controlling it in the marine ecosystem.
  • The transition from aerobic to anaerobic environment adversely affects the biogeo-chemistry of the ocean.

3.Bay of Bengal Offshore Sailing Expedition

Why in News?
  • Indian Naval Sailing Vessels Mhadei and Tarini set sail for the Bay of Bengal Offshore Sailing Expedition from the Indian Naval Ocean Sailing Node at Goa.
  • This would be the maiden major mixed crew sailing expedition of the Indian Navy with crew composition of five naval officers including two women officers in each boat.
  • It would be covering a total distance of 6,100 Nautical miles each and will be at sea for 55 days.
  • The prolonged voyage of nearly three months during this expedition would showcase harnessing of renewal energy namely wind energy to propel the boats.
  • The expedition is also in pursuance of the GOI mission of ‘Nari Shakti’ providing opportunity to women officers at par with men.
  • The sailing vessels as part of the expedition would make replenishment halts at ports of Phuket, Yangon, Chittagong and Colombo.
Indian Naval Sailing Vessels:
  • Mhadei and Tarini inducted in the Indian Navy on 08 February 2009 and 18 February 2017 respectively have been the vessels of choice for the naval expeditions in various sailing expeditions, including three circumnavigations and thus have thousands of miles tucked under their belt.
  • Mhadei has successfully completed two circumnavigations, three Cape to Rio trans-Atlantic races and several other expeditions around various continents.
  • The vessel has covered in excess of 1,36,000 nautical miles.
  • Tarini created history in 2017-18 when six Indian Naval women officers sailed the vessel on maiden circumnavigation voyage titled Navika Sagar Parikrama.
  • She thereafter also participated in mixed crew Kochi to Seychelles sail training expedition during the 10th-anniversary celebration of the IONS.

4.Consultative Committee

Why in News?
  • Recently, the meeting of the Consultative Committee of the Members of Parliament for the Ministry of Steel was held.
About Consultative Committee:
  • It is constituted by the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.
  • It is normally constituted after the new Lok Sabha is constituted, which implies that the committees stand dissolved upon dissolution of every Lok Sabha and thus, are reconstituted upon the constitution of each Lok Sabha.
  • The guidelines regarding the composition, functions and procedures of these committees are formulated by the Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs.
  • It consists of members of both the Houses of Parliament. The maximum membership of a committee is 30 and the minimum is 10.
  • The membership of these committees is voluntary and is left to the choice of the members and the leaders of their parties.
Functions of Consultative Committee:
  • The Minister/Minister of State in charge of the Ministry concerned acts as the chairman of the consultative committee of that ministry.
  • It provides a forum for informal discussions between the ministers and the members of Parliament on policies and programmes of the government and the manner of their implementation.
  • It is not Parliamentary Committees.

5.Kalasa-Banduri Nala Project

Why in News?
  • Recently, the cost of the Kalasa-Banduri Nala project on the Mahadayi basin has risen due to the ongoing inter-State river water dispute.
About Kalasa-Banduri Nala Project:
  • It is undertaken by the Government of Karnataka, which was planned in 1989. Goa raised an objection to it.
  • It is to improve drinking water supply to the three districts of Belagavi, Dharwad, and Gadag.
  • It involves building across Kalasa and Banduri (the two tributaries of the Mahadayi river) to divert water to the Malaprabha river (a tributary of Krishna river).
About Mahadayi River (Mhadei):
  • It is a west-flowing river, originates in Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary (Western Ghats) of Karnataka.
  • It is essentially a rain-fed river also called Mandovi in Goa.
  • It travels 35 km in Karnataka; 82 km in Goa before joining the Arabian Sea.
  • The Mahadayi Water Disputes Tribunal was set up in 2010. Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra are parties to the tribunal.

6.Sahitya Akademi Awards

  • Recently K.V. Jeyasri, a Tamil teacher has won the Sahitya Akademi Award 2019 for her translation of the Malayalam novel Nilam Poothu Malarnna Naal (The day the land bloomed and blossomed) into Tamil as Nilam Poothu Malarntha Naal.
About Sahitya Akademi Awards:
  • It is established in 1954, is a literary honour that is conferred annually by Sahitya Akademi, India’s National Academy of letters.
  • It is presented to the most outstanding books of literary merit published in any of the twenty-four major Indian languages recognized by the Akademi (including English).
  • It is the second highest literary honour by the Government of India, after Jananpith award.
  • It is presented in the form of a casket containing an engraved copper-plaque, a shawl and a cheque of Rs 1 lakh.
Criteria for Sahitya Akademi Awards:
  • The author must be of Indian Nationality.
  • Book/work eligible for award must be an outstanding contribution to the language and literature to which it belongs.
  • When equal merit for books of two or more are found, certain criteria like total literary contribution and standing of authors shall be taken into consideration for declaring award.

 7.SPICe+ Web Form

Why in News?
  • The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has recently launched the Simplified Proforma for Incorporating Company Electronically Plus (SPICe+) web form.
  • About Simplified Proforma for Incorporating Company Electronically Plus (SPICe+) form
  • It replaces the existing SPICe form. It was launched in 2016 and is a single form for multiple services for incorporation of a company.
  • It will facilitate onscreen filing and real-time data validation for the seamless incorporation of companies.
  • It offers 10 services by 3 central government ministries & departments (Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Ministry of Labour & Ministry of Finance) and one State Government (Maharashtra).
It has Two Parts:
  • Part A for name reservation for new companies and;
  • Part B offering services including incorporation, Director Identification Number (DIN) allotment, mandatory issue of Permanent Account N​umber (PAN), besides allotment of Goods and Service Tax Identification Number – GSTIN (if applied for).
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