Prelim Snippets- 27-12-2019

1. Solar Eclipse

Why in News?
  • The Annual Solar Eclipse was recently observed in parts of India.
  • The Solar eclipse happens when the moon while orbiting the Earth comes in between the sun and the Earth, due to which the moon blocks the sun’s light from reaching the Earth, causing an eclipse of the sun or a solar eclipse.
  • There are three types of eclipses.
  • Total solar eclipsehappens when the sun, moon and Earth are in a direct line. The dark silhouette of the Moon completely covers the intense bright light of the Sun. Only the much fainter solar corona is visible during a total eclipse which is known as a Totality.
  • Partial solar eclipse happens when the shadow of the moon appears on a small part of the sun.
  • Annular solar eclipse, which happens when the moon is farthest from the Earth, which is why it seems smaller. In this type of an eclipse, the moon does not block the sun completely, but looks like a “dark disk on top of a larger sun-colored disk” forming a “ring of fire”.
  • Lunar eclipses occur when the Sun, Moon and earth all fall in the same line and Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon, casting a shadow on the Moon.

2. Stay Order

Why in News?
  • The Supreme Court has outlined three aspects it usually considers while granting a stay order.
  • Stay Order is the Act of temporarily stopping a judicial proceeding through the order of a Court.
  • A stay is a suspension of a case or a suspension of a particular proceeding within a case.
  • A judge may grant a stay on the motion of a party to the case or issue a stay sua sponte, without the request of a party.
  • The Three Conditions Include:
  • The balance of convenience does not favour the alleged violator; the Stay Order does not cause irreparable harm or injury; and there should be a prima facie case for granting the stay order.

3. Black Rhino

Why in News?
  • Recently, a black rhino has been born in a French Zoo.
About Black Rhino:
  • Its scientific name is Diceros bicornis, alternatively called as Hook-lipped rhinoceros.
  • It is given Critically Endangered status by IUCN Red list.
  • It had a wide range in the in northern part of Africa than today. They are found in southern and eastern Africa.
  • Although it is referred to as black, its colours vary from brown to grey.
  • Its resident is found in Angola, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe

4. Earliest Sanskrit inscription in South India found in A.P

Why in News?
  • In a significant find, the Epigraphy Branch of the Archaeological Survey of India has discovered the earliest epigraphic evidence so far for the Saptamatrika cult.
  • It is also the earliest Sanskrit inscription to have been discovered in South India till date.
  • Saptamatrikas are a group of seven female deities worshipped in Hinduism as personifying the energy of their respective consorts.
  • The inscription is in Sanskrit and in Brahmi characters and was issued by the Satavahana King Vijaya in 207 A.D.
  • The inscription was discovered in the Chebrolu village in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.
  • The inscription was first copied and studied, and it transpired that it records the construction of a prasada (temple), a mandapa and consecration of images on the southern side of the temple by a person named Kartika for the merit of the king at the temple of Bhagavathi (Goddess) Saktimatruka (Saptamatrika) at Tambrape; Tambrape being the ancient name of Chebrolu.
  • There are references of Saptamatrika worship in the early Kadamba copper plates and the early Chalukya and Eastern Chalukya copper plates. But the new discovery predates them by almost 200 years.
  • The verification of all the available records proved that the Chebrolu inscription of Satavahana king Vijaya issued in his 5thregnal year – 207 A.D. — is also the earliest datable Sanskrit inscription from South India so far.
  • According to Matsya Purana, Vijaya is the 28thking of the Satavahana dynasty and ruled for 6 years. So far the Nagarjunakonda inscription of Ikshavaku King Ehavala Chantamula issued in his 11th regnal year corresponding to the 4th century A.D. was considered the earliest Sanskrit inscription in South India.

5. Typhoon Phanfone

Why in News?
  • Recently, the Philippines was hit by Typhoon Phanfone.
About Typhoon Phanfone:
  • It is known as Ursula in the local language in the Philippines.
  • It is the second typhoon after typhoon Kammuri which hit the Philippines.
  • It is following a similar path as Super Typhoon Haiyan, which had hit the country.
About Typhoon:
  • It is a region-specific name of the Tropical Cyclone which is a swirling system of clouds and thunderstorms that originates over tropical or subtropical oceans.
About Tropical Cyclone:
  • It is the formation of a very low-pressure system with very high-speed winds revolving around it. It is called as ‘Hurricanes’in the North Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, ‘Typhoons’ in South-East Asia and China and ‘Tropical Cyclones’ in the South-West Pacific and Indian Ocean Region.

6. “Run Through Files” Mechanism

Why in News?
  • To ensure that important government matters don’t get delayed owing to conflicting hierarchical and departmental priorities, the Haryana government has introduced a “Run Through Files” Mechanism.
“Run Through Files” mechanism
  • Haryana government has introduced a new provision of “Run Through Files’’ in the Centralised File Movement and Tracking Information System (CFMS).
  • It would be personally monitored by Chief Minister of Haryana.
  • A file shall be marked as Run Through Files only by the CM in the CFMS.
  • Every file marked as RTF has to be cleared on priority greater than that is currently being accorded to the files marked top priority.
  • At whichever level any contribution other than mere signing on the file is made, the same will also be uploaded on CFMS portal.
  • A system generated SMS and email will automatically be sent on each downward or upward movement of the file.
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