Prelims level : International Reports Mains level : State of World Population-2019
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Why in News?

  • The State of World Population-2019 released by United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).


  •  India’s population grew at an average of 1.2% annually between 2010 and 2019 which is more than double the annual growth rate of China. Around half of India’s population in 24 states have achieved the replacement fertility rates of 2.1 children per women, which is the desired family size when the population stops growing.
  •  27% of India’s population was in the age bracket of 0-14 years and 10-24 years, while 67% of the country’s population was in the 15-64 age bracket. 6% of the country’s population was of the age 65 and above.
  •  India registered an improvement in life expectancy at birth. The life expectancy at birth in 1969 was 47 years, growing to 60 years in 1994 and 69 years in 2019.
  •  The findings on women aged between 15-49 years were published for the first time as part of United Nations Population Fund’s (UNFPA) State of World Population 2019 report. It includes data on women’s ability to make decisions over three key areas:  Sexual intercourse with their partner   Contraception use and Health care.
  • According to the analysis, the absence of reproductive and sexual rights has major and negative repercussions on women’s education, income and safety, leaving them “unable to shape their own futures”. Early marriage continues to remain an obstacle to female empowerment and better reproductive rights.
  •  The report highlights the threat to women’s and girls’ reproductive rights posed by emergencies caused by conflict or climate disasters.
  •  The release of report marks 50 years of the UNFPA being established to support countries to bring down fertility levels.
  • It also marks 25 years of International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994, where 179 governments agreed on a rights-based approach to sexual and reproductive health to address population growth.

Reproductive health:


  •  Reproductive health can be defined as a state of well-being related to one’s sexual and reproductive life.
  •  It implies, “that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so”.


  •  It is the United Nations sexual and reproductive health agency.
  •  It was established as a trust fund in 1967 and began operations in 1969.
  •  The mandate of UNFPA is established by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).
  •  UNFPA is a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly.
  •  UNFPA is entirely supported by voluntary contributions of donor governments, intergovernmental organizations, the private sector, and foundations and individuals, NOT by the United Nations regular budget.
  •  UNFPA works directly to tackle Sustainable Development Goal 3 on health, Goal 4 on education and Goal 5 on gender equality.
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