State of World Population Report

Prelims level : Policies Mains level : GS-II Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector or Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
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Why in News?

  • The Total Fertility Rate (TFR), an average number of children per woman, has further declined from 2.2 to 2.0 at the national level between National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 4 and 5.

About the News:

  • The State of World Population is published annually which covers and analyses developments and trends in world population and demographics, as well as shedding a light on specific regions, countries and population groups and the unique challenges they face.

What are the Key Highlights of the Report?

Population Estimation:

  • India’s population is pegged to reach 142.86 crore against China’s 142.57 crore by July 2023.
  • 25% of India’s population is in the age group of 0-14 years, 18% in the 10-19 age group, 26% in the age bracket of 10-24 years, 68% in the 15-64 years age group, and 7% above 65 years.
  • India will have 29 lakhs more people than its Asian neighbour.
  • The United States is a third populated country, with a population of 340 million.

Slowing Population:

  • Population growth in both India and China has been slowing, despite accounting for more than one-third of the estimated global population.

Fertility Rate:

  • India’s total Fertility Rate, was estimated at 2, lower than the world average of 2.3.
  • Developed regions projected a fertility rate of 1.5, less developed regions 2.4 and less developed countries 3.9.

Life Expectancy:

  • The average life expectancy for an Indian male was projected as 71 and 74 for females.
  • On average, the life expectancy for males globally was projected to be 71 and 76 for females.
  • For developed regions, the average life expectancy for males was projected at 77 and 83 for females — the highest of all.
  • For less developed regions, the ages are 70 for males and 74 for females, while for least developed countries, it is 63 for males and 68 for females.

Gender Rights:

  • Violence by an intimate partner in the last 12 months was reported by 18% of women, while 66% of women had decision-making on sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights in India.
  • A little over 80% of women had some say in decision-making regarding their own healthcare.

Population Growth Concentrations:

  • More than half of the projected increase in global population up to 2050 will be concentrated in eight countries — the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines and the United Republic of Tanzania.

What are the Recommendations?

  • With almost half the population under 25 years of age, India has a time-bound opportunity to benefit from the Demographic Dividend. The focus should be on giving women more power to control when and how they have children.
  • Ensuring gender equality, empowerment and advancing greater bodily autonomy for women and girls—is one of the key determinants of a sustainable future.
  • Thriving and inclusive societies can be built, regardless of population size, if countries are prepared to radically rethink how we talk about, and plan for, population change.
  • In high-fertility countries, empowerment through education and family planning, is known to yield enormous dividends in the form of economic growth and human capital development.
  • All governments should uphold human rights, strengthen pension and healthcare systems, promote active and healthy aging, protect migrants’ rights, and seek to mitigate the damaging impact of climate change.

What is the UNFPA?

  • It is a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly and works as a sexual and reproductive health agency.
  • The UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) establishes its mandate.
  • It was established as a trust fund in 1967 and began operations in 1969.
  • In 1987, it was officially renamed the United Nations Population Fund but the original abbreviation, ‘UNFPA’ for the United Nations Fund for Population Activities was retained.
  • UNFPA works directly to tackle Sustainable Development Goals on health (SDG3), education (SDG4) and gender equality (SDG5).
  • UNFPA is not supported by the UN budget, instead, it is entirely supported by voluntary contributions of donor governments, intergovernmental organizations, the private sector, foundations and individuals.
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