Prelims level : Governance - Transparency Mains level : GS-II Transparency & accountability and institutional and Other Measures.
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Why in News?

  • Transparency International – a German based NGO has released its 2019 edition of  “Global Corruption Perception Index”.

About the Index:

  • The CPI draws on surveys and expert assessments to rank countries by their perceived levels of public sector corruption.
  • The index measures public sector corruption in 180 countries and territories.
  • It uses a scale of 0 to 100, where 0 is highly corrupt and 100 is very clean.

Key findings of the Report:

1.Global Level:

  • The top ranked countries are New Zealand and Denmark, with scores of 87 each, followed by Finland (86), Singapore (85), Sweden (85) and Switzerland (85).
  • The countries ranked at the bottom of the list are Somalia, South Sudan and Syria with scores of 9, 12 and 13.

2. Regional Level:

  • In the Asia Pacific region, the average score is 45, after many consecutive years of an average score of 44, which “illustrates general stagnation” across the region.
  • Despite the presence of high performers like New Zealand (87), Singapore (85), Australia (77), Hong Kong (76) and Japan (73), the Asia Pacific region hasn’t witnessed substantial progress in anti-corruption efforts or results.
  • Low performers like Afghanistan (16), North Korea (17) and Cambodia (20) continue to Highlight serious challenges in the region.

3. Indian Scenario:

    • India slips two places on Global corruption perception index by ranking 80th in 2019. India was ranked 78th in 2018. Its score of 41 out of 100 remains unchanged.
    • The report questions the “unfair and opaque political financing” prevailing in our country.
    • The report has observed that in democracies like India, unfair and opaque political financing, undue influence in decision-making and lobbying by powerful corporate interest groups, has resulted in stagnation or decline in the control of corruption.
  • The report reveals that corruption is more pervasive in countries where big money can flow freely into electoral campaigns and where governments listen only to the voices of wealthy or well-connected individuals.
  • Many countries see economic openness as a way forward, however, governments across the region, continue to restrict participation in public affairs, silence dissenting voices and keep decision-making out of public scrutiny.

Way Forward:

  • To make real progress against corruption and strengthen democracy around the world, Transparency International calls on all Governments to:
    • strengthen the Institutions Responsiblefor maintaining checks and balances over political power, and ensure their ability to operate without intimidation;
    • close the Implementation gapbetween anti-corruption legislation, practice and enforcement;
    • support civil society Organisationswhich enhance political engagement and public oversight over government spending, particularly at the local level;
    • support a Free and Independent Media,and ensure the safety of journalists and their ability to work without intimidation or harassment.

About Transparency International:

  • Transparency International, an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany was founded in 1993.
  • It is a non-profit purpose is to take action to combat corruption and prevent criminal activities arising from Corruption.
  • Other report published by Transparency International is Global Corruption Barometer.
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