Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM)

Why in News?

  • The Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM) has recently flagged massive corruption of illegal mining and transportation of Manganese in Odisha.


  • IBM is a multi-disciplinary government organization under the Ministry of Mines, engaged in promotion of conservation, scientific development of mineral resources and protection of the environment in mines other than coal, petroleum & natural gas, atomic minerals and minor minerals.
  • Odisha is a mineral-rich State having 96.12% of the country’s chrome ore, 51.15% bauxite reserve of India, 33.61% of hematite iron ore and 43.64% of manganese.
  • Mining lease holders in Odisha were dispatching manganese ore as low-grade from their mines to the traders operating from West Bengal, who subsequently sold it as high-grade without any processing.
  • Some mining companies in Odisha are involved in under-reporting the quantity of minerals mined and transported, as well as not paying the appropriate royalties and taxes.
  • Such issues can have serious consequences for the environment, the economy, and the livelihoods of people who depend on natural resources for their sustenance.
  • The Issue of manganese ore grade reduction is significant as it may affect the quality and value of the ore, resulting in a loss of revenue for the state government.
  • The state government should take action against the companies involved in illegal mining and transportation of minerals, and also called for stricter enforcement of mining laws and regulations.
  • As per Section 23C of Mines & Minerals (Development and Regulation) (MMDR) Act, State Governments are empowered to make rules for preventing illegal mining, transportation and storage of minerals.
  • Illegal mining is the extraction of minerals, ores, or other valuable resources from land or water bodies without the necessary permits, licenses, or regulatory approvals from government authorities.
  • It can also Involve the violation of environmental, labor, and safety standards.
  • The entry at serial No. 23 of List II (State List) to the Constitution of India mandates the state government to own the minerals located within their boundaries.
  • The entry at serial No. 54 of List I (Central List) mandate the central government to own the minerals within the exclusive economic zone of India (EEZ).
  • In pursuance to this Mines & Minerals (Development and Regulation) (MMDR) Act of 1957 was framed.
  • International Seabed Authority (ISA) regulates mineral exploration and extraction of deep seabed minerals in the international seabed area that are beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.
  • It Is guided by the UN treaty and India being a party to the treaty has received an exclusive right to explore polymetallic nodules over 75000 sq. km in Central Indian Ocean Basin.
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