Prelims level : Health Mains level : GS-II Issues relating to Development and Mangement of Health
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Why in News?

  • Intensified Mission Indradhanush, IMI 2.0 is to be rolled out from 2nd December, 2019.

Universal Immunization Programme (UIP):

  • Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as ‘Expanded Programme of Immunization’ (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
  • In 1985, the programme was modified as ‘Universal Immunization Programme’ (UIP) to be implemented in phased manner to cover all districts in the country by 1989-90.
  • This was one of largest health programme in the world.
  • Under UIP, immunization is providing free of cost against 12 vaccine preventable diseases:
  • Nationally against 9 diseases – Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Measles, Rubella, severe form of Childhood Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B and Meningitis & Pneumonia caused by Hemophilus Influenza type B.
  • Sub-nationally against 3 diseases – Rotavirus diarrhoea, Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Japanese Encephalitis; of which Rotavirus vaccine and Pneumococcal Conjugate vaccine are in process of expansion while JE vaccine is provided only in endemic districts.

Mission Indradhanush:

  • ‘Mission Indradhanush’ was launched in December 2014 to fully immunize more than 89 lakh children who are either unvaccinated or partially vaccinated. The Mission based on priority, focused on high risk settlements identified by the polio eradication programme.

Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI):

  • It was launched in 2017, to further intensify the immunization programme.
  • The programme has been launched, to reach each and every child under two years of age and all those pregnant women who have been left uncovered under the routine immunisation programme.
  • The special drive focused on improving immunisation coverage in select districts and cities to ensure full immunisation to more than 90% by December 2018.
  • Special attention was given to unserved/low coverage pockets in sub-centre and urban slums with migratory population.
  • The focus was also on the urban settlements and cities identified under National Urban Health Mission (NUHM).
  • The programme was closely monitored at the district, state and central level at regular intervals.

Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 2.0:

  • The programme aims to achieve targets of full immunisation coverage in 272 districts in 27 states, and will be implemented at the block level (652 blocks) in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
  • The scheme will help India achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of ending preventable child deaths by 2030.


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